Using a Multi-Institutional Pediatric Learning Health System to Identify Systemic Lupus Erythematosus and Lupus Nephritis: Development and Validation of Computable Phenotypes.
Year of Publication
2021 Nov 03
<p><strong>BACKGROUND AND OBJECTIVES: </strong>Performing adequately powered clinical trials in pediatric diseases, such as SLE, is challenging. Improved recruitment strategies are needed for identifying patients.</p>
<p><strong>DESIGN, SETTING, PARTICIPANTS, & MEASUREMENTS: </strong>Electronic health record algorithms were developed and tested to identify children with SLE both with and without lupus nephritis. We used single-center electronic health record data to develop computable phenotypes composed of diagnosis, medication, procedure, and utilization codes. These were evaluated iteratively against a manually assembled database of patients with SLE. The highest-performing phenotypes were then evaluated across institutions in PEDSnet, a national health care systems network of >6.7 million children. Reviewers blinded to case status used standardized forms to review random samples of cases (=350) and noncases (=350).</p>
<p><strong>RESULTS: </strong>Final algorithms consisted of both utilization and diagnostic criteria. For both, utilization criteria included two or more in-person visits with nephrology or rheumatology and ≥60 days follow-up. SLE diagnostic criteria included absence of neonatal lupus, one or more hydroxychloroquine exposures, and either three or more qualifying diagnosis codes separated by ≥30 days or one or more diagnosis codes and one or more kidney biopsy procedure codes. Sensitivity was 100% (95% confidence interval [95% CI], 99 to 100), specificity was 92% (95% CI, 88 to 94), positive predictive value was 91% (95% CI, 87 to 94), and negative predictive value was 100% (95% CI, 99 to 100). Lupus nephritis diagnostic criteria included either three or more qualifying lupus nephritis diagnosis codes (or SLE codes on the same day as glomerular/kidney codes) separated by ≥30 days or one or more SLE diagnosis codes and one or more kidney biopsy procedure codes. Sensitivity was 90% (95% CI, 85 to 94), specificity was 93% (95% CI, 89 to 97), positive predictive value was 94% (95% CI, 89 to 97), and negative predictive value was 90% (95% CI, 84 to 94). Algorithms identified 1508 children with SLE at PEDSnet institutions (537 with lupus nephritis), 809 of whom were seen in the past 12 months.</p>
<p><strong>CONCLUSIONS: </strong>Electronic health record-based algorithms for SLE and lupus nephritis demonstrated excellent classification accuracy across PEDSnet institutions.</p>
Clin J Am Soc Nephrol