The use of echinocandins in hospitalized children in the United States.
Year of Publication
2018 Sep 28
<p>Echinocandins are used for treatment of invasive candidiasis, but data on their use in children are limited. We sought to describe the epidemiology of echinocandin use in hospitalized children in the United States.We performed a retrospective cohort study of children <18 years of age hospitalized between January 2005 and December 2015 and exposed to ≥1 day of a systemic antifungal agent using the Pediatric Health Information System (PHIS) database. Univariate analyses compared recipients of two echinocandin agents, caspofungin and micafungin. Crude prescribing rates of each antifungal group were calculated across hospitals and per year. The rate of antifungal agent prescribing over time was assessed using two-level mixed-effects negative binomial regression, accounting for variability in prescribing by hospital over time. From 2005 to 2015, fluconazole was prescribed most often (n = 148,859, 74.3%), followed by mould-active triazoles (n = 36,131, 18.0%), amphotericin products (n = 29,008, 14.5%), and echinocandins (n = 28,371, 14.2%). The crude rate of systemic antifungal prescribing decreased across all PHIS hospitals from 36.3 to 33.8 per 1000 admissions during the study period, but echinocandin prescribing increased from 2.2 to 7.2 per 1000 admissions. A mixed effects regression model revealed that echinocandin prescribing increased by 15.1% per year (95% CI 11.2-19.2). Echinocandin administration increased from 6.1% to 21.0% of admissions during which a systemic antifungal agent was given. In conclusion, echinocandin use has increased significantly over time, accounting for an increasing proportion of systemic antifungal prescribing in children.</p>