Urologic care and progression to end-stage kidney disease: a Chronic Kidney Disease in Children (CKiD) nested case-control study.

Year of Publication


Date Published

2019 Mar 16

ISSN Number



<p><strong>INTRODUCTION: </strong>Children with chronic kidney disease (CKD) risk progressing to end-stage kidney disease (ESKD). The majority of CKD causes in children are related to congenital anomalies of the kidney and urinary tract, which may be treated by urologic care.</p>

<p><strong>OBJECTIVE: </strong>To examine the association of ESKD with urologic care in children with CKD.</p>

<p><strong>STUDY DESIGN: </strong>This was a nested case-control study within the Chronic Kidney Disease in Children (CKiD) prospective cohort study that included children aged 1-16 years with non-glomerular causes of CKD. The primary exposure was prior urologic referral with or without surgical intervention. Incidence density sampling matched each case of ESKD to up to three controls on duration of time from CKD onset, sex, race, age at baseline visit, and history of low birth weight. Conditional logistic regression analysis was performed to estimate rate ratios (RRs) for the incidence of ESKD.</p>

<p><strong>RESULTS: </strong>Sixty-six cases of ESKD were matched to 153 controls. Median age at baseline study visit was 12 years; 67% were male, and 7% were black. Median follow-up time from CKD onset was 14.9 years. Seventy percent received urologic care, including 100% of obstructive uropathy and 96% of reflux nephropathy diagnoses. Cases had worse renal function at their baseline visit and were less likely to have received prior urologic care. After adjusting for income, education, and insurance status, urology referral with surgery was associated with 50% lower risk of ESKD (RR 0.50 [95% confidence interval [CI] 0.26-0.997), compared to no prior urologic care (Figure). After excluding obstructive uropathy and reflux nephropathy diagnoses, which were highly correlated with urologic surgery, the association was attenuated (RR 0.72, 95% CI 0.24-2.18).</p>

<p><strong>DISCUSSION: </strong>In this study, urologic care was commonly but not uniformly provided to children with non-glomerular causes of CKD. Underlying specific diagnoses play an important role in both the risk of ESKD and potential benefits of urologic surgery.</p>

<p><strong>CONCLUSION: </strong>Within the CKiD cohort, children with non-glomerular causes of CKD often received urologic care. Urology referral with surgery was associated with lower risk of ESKD compared to no prior urologic care but depended on specific underlying diagnoses.</p>



Alternate Title

J Pediatr Urol




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