Ultrasound imaging of preterm brain injury: fundamentals and updates.
Year of Publication
2021 Oct 14
<p>Neurosonography has become an essential tool for diagnosis and serial monitoring of preterm brain injury. Preterm infants are at significantly higher risk of hypoxic-ischemic injury, intraventricular hemorrhage, periventricular leukomalacia and post-hemorrhagic hydrocephalus. Neonatologists have become increasingly dependent on neurosonography to initiate medical and surgical interventions because it can be used at the bedside. While brain MRI is regarded as the gold standard for detecting preterm brain injury, neurosonography offers distinct advantages such as its cost-effectiveness, diagnostic utility and convenience. Neurosonographic signatures associated with poor long-term outcomes shape decisions regarding supportive care, medical or behavioral interventions, and family members' expectations. Within the last decade substantial progress has been made in neurosonography techniques, prompting an updated review of the topic. In addition to the up-to-date summary of neurosonography, this review discusses the potential roles of emerging neurosonography techniques that offer new functional insights into the brain, such as superb microvessel imaging, elastography, three-dimensional ventricular volume assessment, and contrast-enhanced US.</p>