Trends in zygomycosis in children.
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<p>Zygomycosis, or mucormycosis, is associated with significant morbidity and mortality in both children and adults. Studies in adults have shown an increase in the incidence of zygomycosis, particularly among haemtopoietic stem cell transplant (HSCT) recipients and patients with haematologic malignancies. There is a paucity of data on the epidemiology of zygomycosis in children. We performed a retrospective analysis to describe trends in zygomycosis between 1 January 2003 and 31 December 2010. We used the Pediatric Health Information System (PHIS) database to identify paediatric patients who were diagnosed with zygomycosis during the study period. Administrative data on diagnoses, demographics, underlying conditions and clinical experiences were collected. Summary statistics were calculated and tests for trend were conducted. We identified 156 unique patients with zygomycosis. The prevalence of zygomycosis did not significantly increase over time (P=0.284). The most common underlying condition was malignancy (58%) and over half received intensive care. Voriconazole utilisation among all hospitalised children significantly increased during the period (P=0.010). Our study demonstrates that the incidence of zygomycosis is not significantly increasing. During the time period there was a significant increase in the use of voriconazole among children.</p>