Systematic Literature Review on the Incidence and Prevalence of Heart Failure in Children and Adolescents.
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<p>While the epidemiology of adult heart failure has been extensively researched, this systematic review addresses the less well characterized incidence and prevalence of pediatric HF. The search strategy used Cochrane methodology and identified 83 unique studies for inclusion. Studies were categorized according to whether the HF diagnosis was reported as primary (n = 10); associated with other cardiovascular diseases (CVDs) (n = 49); or associated with non-CVDs (n = 24). A narrative synthesis of the evidence is presented. For primary HF, the incidence ranged from 0.87/100,000 (UK and Ireland) to 7.4/100,000 (Taiwan). A prevalence of 83.3/100,000 was reported in one large population-based study from Spain. HF etiology varied across regions with lower respiratory tract infections and severe anemia predominating in lower income countries, and cardiomyopathies and congenital heart disease major causes in higher income countries. Key findings for the other categories included a prevalence of HF associated with cardiomyopathies ranging from 36.1% (Japan) to 79% (US); associated with congenital heart disease from 8% (Norway) to 82.2% (Nigeria); associated with rheumatic heart diseases from 1.5% (Turkey) to 74% (Zimbabwe); associated with renal disorders from 3.8% (India) to 24.1% (Nigeria); and associated with HIV from 1% (US) to 29.3% (Brazil). To our knowledge, this is the first systematic review of the topic and strengthens current knowledge of pediatric HF epidemiology. Although a large body of research was identified, heterogeneity in study design and diagnostic criteria limited the ability to compare regional data. Standardized definitions of pediatric HF are required to facilitate cross-regional comparisons of epidemiological data.</p>