Significant mortality, morbidity and resource utilization associated with advanced heart failure in congenital heart disease in children and young adults.
Year of Publication
Number of Pages
2018 Dec 05
<p><strong>BACKGROUND: </strong>Children with congenital heart disease (CHD) are at risk for advanced heart failure (AHF). We sought to define the mortality and resource utilization in CHD-related AHF in children and young adults.</p>
<p><strong>METHODS: </strong>All hospitalizations in the Pediatric Health Information System database involving patients ≤21 years old with a CHD diagnosis and heart failure requiring at least 7 days of continuous inotropic support between 2004 and 2015 were included. Hospitalizations including CHD surgery were excluded.</p>
<p><strong>RESULTS: </strong>Of 465,482 CHD hospitalizations, AHF was present in 2,712 (0.6%) [58% infant, 55% male, 30% single ventricle]. AHF therapies frequently used included extracorporeal membrane oxygenation (ECMO) (15%) and cardiac transplant (16%). Ventricular assist device (VAD) support was rare (3%), although VAD use significantly increased from 2004 to 2015 (P < .0010). Hospital mortality in CHD with AHF was 26%, with higher mortality associated with single ventricle heart disease (OR 1.64, 95% CI 1.23-2.19; P = .0009), infancy (OR 1.71, 95% CI 1.17-2.5; P = .0057), non-white race (OR 1.28, 95% CI 1.04-1.59; p=0.0234), and chronic complex comorbidities (OR 1.76, 95% CI 1.34-2.30; P < .0001). Over the 11-year study period, despite the significant increase in CHD-related AHF hospitalizations (P < .0001), hospital mortality improved (P = .0011). Median hospital costs were $252,000, a 6-fold increase above those without AHF, and was primarily driven by hospital length of stay (P < .0001).</p>
<p><strong>CONCLUSION: </strong>AHF in children with CHD in uncommon but increasing and is associated with significant morbidity, mortality and resource utilization. Approximately 1 in 5 children do not survive to hospital discharge. Many risk factors for mortality may not be modifiable, and further study is needed to identify modifiable risk factors and improve care for this complex population.</p>
Am. Heart J.