Risk Factors for In-Hospital Mortality among a Cohort of Children with Clostridium difficile Infection.
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<p>OBJECTIVE The incidence of Clostridium difficile infection (CDI) has increased and has been associated with poor outcomes among hospitalized children, including increased risk of death. The purpose of this study was to identify risk factors for all-cause in-hospital mortality among children with CDI. METHODS A multicenter cohort of children with CDI, aged 1-18 years, was established among children hospitalized at 41 freestanding children's hospitals between January 1, 2006 and August 31, 2011. Children with CDI were identified using a validated case-finding tool (ICD-9-CM code for CDI plus C. difficile test charge). Only the first CDI-related hospitalization during the study period was used. Risk factors for all-cause in-hospital mortality within 30 days of C. difficile test were evaluated using a multivariable logistic regression model. RESULTS We identified 7,318 children with CDI during the study period. The median age of this cohort was 6 years [interquartile range (IQR): 2-13]; the mortality rate was 1.5% (n=109); and the median number of days between C. difficile testing and death was 12 (IQR, 7-20). Independent risk factors for death included older age [adjusted odds ratio (OR, 95% confidence interval), 2.29 (1.40-3.77)], underlying malignancy [3.57 (2.36-5.40)], cardiovascular disease [2.06 (1.28-3.30)], hematologic/immunologic condition [1.89 (1.05-3.39)], gastric acid suppression [2.70 (1.43-5.08)], and presence of >1 severity of illness marker [3.88 (2.44-6.19)]. CONCLUSION Patients with select chronic conditions and more severe disease are at increased risk of death. Identifying risk factors for in-hospital mortality can help detect subpopulations of children that may benefit from targeted CDI prevention and treatment strategies. Infect Control Hosp Epidemiol 2015;36(10):1183-1189.</p>
Infect Control Hosp Epidemiol