Risk Factors for Complications in Children with Staphylococcus aureus Bacteremia.
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<p><strong>OBJECTIVES: </strong>To determine risk factors for complications in children with Staphylococcus aureus (S aureus) bacteremia, including methicillin resistance.</p>
<p><strong>STUDY DESIGN: </strong>Single center, retrospective cohort study of children ≤18 years of age hospitalized with S aureus bacteremia. We compared clinical characteristics and outcomes between those with methicillin-sensitive S aureus (MSSA) and methicillin-resistant S aureus (MRSA) bacteremia. Multivariate regression models identified risk factors associated with developing complications and with longer duration of bacteremia.</p>
<p><strong>RESULTS: </strong>We identified 394 episodes of S aureus bacteremia, 279 (70.8%) with MSSA, and 115 (29.2%) with MRSA. Primary site of infection was catheter-related in 34%, musculoskeletal in 30%, skin/soft tissue in 10.2%, pneumonia in 6.4%, and endovascular in 6.6%. Eight children (2.0%) died within 30 days because of S aureus bacteremia, 15 (3.5%) had recurrence within 30 days, and 38 (9.6%) had complications including septic emboli or a metastatic focus of infection. Methicillin resistance was associated with development of a complication (aOR 3.31; 95% CI 1.60-6.85), and catheter-related infections were less likely to be associated with a complication (aOR 0.40; 95% CI 0.15-1.03). In a Poisson regression analysis on duration of bacteremia, methicillin resistance, musculoskeletal infection, endovascular infection, black race, and delayed intervention for source control were significantly associated with longer duration of bacteremia.</p>
<p><strong>CONCLUSIONS: </strong>In this cohort of children with S aureus bacteremia, MRSA infections were associated with longer duration of bacteremia and a higher likelihood of complications.</p>