Risk Factors for Colonization or Infection with Carbapenem-Resistant Enterobacteriaceae in Children: a Multicenter Study.

Year of Publication


Date Published

2017 Oct 02

ISSN Number



<p>Carbapenem-resistant Enterobacteriaceae (CRE) are increasingly identified in children in the United States, but data on the epidemiology of CRE in this population are limited. The objectives of this study were to characterize risk factors for colonization or infection with CRE and describe the microbiologic characteristics of pediatric CRE isolates. We performed a multicenter matched case-control study from January 2011 to October 2015 at three tertiary care pediatric centers. Case patients were hospitalized children with CRE isolated from clinical cultures and were matched in a 2:1 ratio to control patients with carbapenem-susceptible Enterobacteriaceae (CSE). Risk factors for colonization or infection with CRE were then evaluated using multivariable conditional logistic regression. Additionally, we comprehensively reported the antimicrobial susceptibility pattern for CRE isolates. Sixty-three case patients were identified and matched to 126 control patients. On multivariable analysis, anti-pseudomonal antibiotic exposure within the previous 3 months (odds ratio [OR], 5.20; 95% confidence interval [CI], 1.71-15.9, P=0.004), prior surgery (OR, 6.30; 95% CI, 1.83-21.6, P=0.003), and mechanical ventilation (OR, 12.4; 95% CI, 1.26-122, P=0.031) were identified as risk factors for colonization or infection with CRE. Pediatric CRE isolates demonstrated relatively low rates of resistance to amikacin (5%) and ciprofloxacin (25%). Our findings support an important role for antibiotic stewardship interventions limiting the unnecessary use of anti-pseudomonal antibiotics as a strategy to prevent widespread emergence of CRE in children. Future studies should further characterize molecular determinants of antibiotic resistance among pediatric CRE isolates.</p>



Alternate Title

Antimicrob. Agents Chemother.




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