Renal Parenchymal Area Growth Curves for Children 0 to 10 Months Old.
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<p><strong>PURPOSE: </strong>Low renal parenchymal area, which is the gross area of the kidney in maximal longitudinal length minus the area of the collecting system, has been associated with increased risk of end stage renal disease during childhood in boys with posterior urethral valves. To our knowledge normal values do not exist. We aimed to increase the clinical usefulness of this measure by defining normal renal parenchymal area during infancy.</p>
<p><strong>MATERIALS AND METHODS: </strong>In a cross-sectional study of children with prenatally detected mild unilateral hydronephrosis who were evaluated between 2000 and 2012 we measured the renal parenchymal area of normal kidney(s) opposite the kidney with mild hydronephrosis. Measurement was done with ultrasound from birth to post-gestational age 10 months. We used the LMS method to construct unilateral, bilateral, side and gender stratified normalized centile curves. We determined the z-score and the centile of a total renal parenchymal area of 12.4 cm(2) at post-gestational age 1 to 2 weeks, which has been associated with an increased risk of kidney failure before age 18 years in boys with posterior urethral valves.</p>
<p><strong>RESULTS: </strong>A total of 975 normal kidneys of children 0 to 10 months old were used to create renal parenchymal area centile curves. At the 97th centile for unilateral and single stratified curves the estimated margin of error was 4.4% to 8.8%. For bilateral and double stratified curves the estimated margin of error at the 97th centile was 6.6% to 13.2%. Total renal parenchymal area less than 12.4 cm(2) at post-gestational age 1 to 2 weeks had a z-score of -1.96 and fell at the 3rd percentile.</p>
<p><strong>CONCLUSIONS: </strong>These normal renal parenchymal area curves may be used to track kidney growth in infants and identify those at risk for chronic kidney disease progression.</p>