Lack of synergistic nephrotoxicity between vancomycin and piperacillin/tazobactam in a rat model and a confirmatory cellular model.
Year of Publication
2020 Feb 03
<p><strong>BACKGROUND: </strong>Vancomycin and piperacillin/tazobactam are reported in clinical studies to increase acute kidney injury (AKI). However, no clinical study has demonstrated synergistic toxicity, only that serum creatinine increases.</p>
<p><strong>OBJECTIVES: </strong>To clarify the potential for synergistic toxicity between vancomycin, piperacillin/tazobactam and vancomycin + piperacillin/tazobactam treatments by quantifying kidney injury in a translational rat model of AKI and using cell studies.</p>
<p><strong>METHODS: </strong>(i) Male Sprague-Dawley rats (n = 32) received saline, vancomycin 150 mg/kg/day intravenously, piperacillin/tazobactam 1400 mg/kg/day intraperitoneally or vancomycin + piperacillin/tazobactam for 3 days. Urinary biomarkers and histopathology were analysed. (ii) Cellular injury was assessed in NRK-52E cells using alamarBlue®.</p>
<p><strong>RESULTS: </strong>Urinary output increased from Day -1 to Day 1 with vancomycin but only after Day 2 for vancomycin + piperacillin/tazobactam-treated rats. Plasma creatinine was elevated from baseline with vancomycin by Day 2 and only by Day 4 for vancomycin + piperacillin/tazobactam. Urinary KIM-1 and clusterin were increased with vancomycin from Day 1 versus controls (P < 0.001) and only on Day 3 with vancomycin + piperacillin/tazobactam (P < 0.001, KIM-1; P < 0.05, clusterin). The histopathology injury score was elevated only in the vancomycin group when compared with piperacillin/tazobactam as a control (P = 0.04) and generally not so with vancomycin + piperacillin/tazobactam. In NRK-52E cells, vancomycin induced cell death with high doses (IC50 48.76 mg/mL) but piperacillin/tazobactam did not, and vancomycin + piperacillin/tazobactam was similar to vancomycin.</p>
<p><strong>CONCLUSIONS: </strong>All groups treated with vancomycin demonstrated AKI; however, vancomycin + piperacillin/tazobactam was not worse than vancomycin. Histopathology suggested that piperacillin/tazobactam did not worsen vancomycin-induced AKI and may even be protective.</p>
J. Antimicrob. Chemother.