Initiation of anti-tuberculosis treatment in children following gastric aspirate testing, Botswana, 2008-2012.

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2019 Mar 01

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<p><strong>SETTING: </strong>Diagnosing pediatric tuberculosis (TB) is difficult; to improve diagnosis gastric aspiration (GA) was performed in 121 Botswana health facilities.</p>

<p><strong>OBJECTIVE: </strong>To describe treatment initiation and outcomes in children with a positive GA result and those treated empirically.</p>

<p><strong>METHODS: </strong>Children with smear or culture-positive GA or those clinically diagnosed were referred for anti-tuberculosis treatment. Treatment initiation and outcomes were assessed from February 2008 to December 2012 using name-based matching algorithms of the GA database; treatment initiation was captured in the electronic TB registry. Analyses included descriptive statistics and regression models.</p>

<p><strong>RESULTS: </strong>GA was conducted in 1268 children. Among these, 121 (9.5%) were GA-positive; and treatment was initiated in 90 (74.3%). An additional 137 (11.9%) were treated empirically. More than a third (36.4%) had known human immunodeficiency virus status (positive or negative); this was significantly associated with TB treatment initiation (adjusted odds ratio [aOR] 1.8, 95%CI 1.3-2.5); &lt; 0.05). Among the 90 children with a positive GA result, nearly all either completed treatment (78.9%) or were on treatment (20.0%) at the time of data collection.</p>

<p><strong>CONCLUSION: </strong>We could not find documentation of treatment for more than a quarter of the children with laboratory-confirmed TB, an important gap that calls for further examination. The failure to initiate prompt treatment requires investigation and urgent action.</p>



Alternate Title

Int. J. Tuberc. Lung Dis.




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