The influence of mechanical Circulatory support on post-transplant outcomes in pediatric patients: A multicenter study from the International Society for Heart and Lung Transplantation (ISHLT) Registry.
Year of Publication
2021 Jun 11
<p><strong>BACKGROUND: </strong>Mechanical circulatory support (MCS) is increasingly being used as a bridge to transplant in pediatric patients. We compare outcomes in pediatric patients bridged to transplant with MCS from an international cohort.</p>
<p><strong>METHODS: </strong>This retrospective cohort study of heart-transplant patients reported to the International Society for Heart and Lung Transplantation (ISHLT) registry from 2005-2017 includes 5,095 patients <18 years. Pretransplant MCS exposure and anatomic diagnosis were derived. Outcomes included mortality, renal failure, and stroke.</p>
<p><strong>RESULTS: </strong>26% of patients received MCS prior to transplant: 240 (4.7%) on extracorporeal membrane oxygenation (ECMO), 1,030 (20.2%) on ventricular assist device (VAD), and 54 (1%) both. 29% of patients were <1 year, and 43.8% had congenital heart disease (CHD). After adjusting for clinical characteristics, compared to no-MCS and VAD, ECMO had higher mortality during their transplant hospitalization [OR 3.97 & 2.55; 95% CI 2.43-6.49 & 1.42-4.60] while VAD mortality was similar [OR 1.55; CI 0.99-2.45]. Outcomes of ECMO+VAD were similar to ECMO alone, including increased mortality during transplant hospitalization compared to no-MCS [OR 4.74; CI 1.81-12.36]. Patients with CHD on ECMO had increased 1 year, and 10 year mortality [HR 2.36; CI 1.65-3.39], [HR 1.82; CI 1.33-2.49]; there was no difference in survival in dilated cardiomyopathy (DCM) patients based on pretransplant MCS status.</p>
<p><strong>CONCLUSION: </strong>Survival in CHD and DCM is similar in patients with no MCS or VAD prior to transplant, while pretransplant ECMO use is strongly associated with mortality after transplant particularly in children with CHD. In children with DCM, long term survival was equivalent regardless of MCS status.</p>
J Heart Lung Transplant