Dynamic contrast-enhanced magnetic resonance lymphangiography.
Year of Publication
2021 Apr 08
<p>Lymphatic flow disorders include a broad spectrum of abnormalities that can originate in the lymphatic or the venous system. The development of these disorders is multifactorial and is most commonly associated with congenital heart diseases and palliative surgeries that these patients undergo. Central lymphatic disorders might be secondary to traumatic leaks, lymphatic overproduction, conduction abnormalities or lymphedema, and they can progress to perfusion anomalies. Several imaging modalities have been used to visualize the lymphatic system. However, the imaging of central lymphatic flow has always been challenging. Dynamic contrast-enhanced magnetic resonance lymphangiography (DCMRL) allows for visualization of central lymphatic flow disorders and has been recently applied for the assessment of plastic bronchitis, protein-losing enteropathy, chylothorax and chylopericardium, among other lymphatic disorders. The hepatic and mesenteric accesses are innovative and promising techniques for better identification and understanding of these abnormalities. The main objectives of this review are to discuss the physiology and anatomy of the lymphatic system and review the current uses of DCMRL in the diagnosis and management of lymphatic flow disorders.</p>