Decreased Neural Connectivity in the Default Mode Network Among Youth and Young Adults With Chronic Kidney Disease.
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<p>An increasing amount of literature has indicated that chronic kidney disease (CKD) is associated with cognitive deficits that increase with worsening disease severity. Although abnormalities in brain structure have been widely documented, few studies to date have examined the functioning of brain areas associated with the specific cognitive domains affected by CKD (namely, attention and executive functions). Furthermore, few studies have examined functional connectivity among CKD youth who are relatively early in the course of the disease. The present study used functional magnetic resonance imaging to examine the resting state connectivity in 67 youth with CKD (mean age, 17 y) and 58 age-matched healthy controls. Using seed-based multiple regression, decreased connectivity was observed within the anterior cingulate portion of the default mode network. In addition, decreased connectivity within the dorsolateral prefrontal cortex, paracingulate gyrus, and frontal pole were correlated significantly with disease severity. These data indicate that connectivity deficits in circuits implementing attentional processes may represent an early marker for cognitive decline in CKD.</p>