Characterizing Neurocognitive Impairment in Juvenile Fibromyalgia Syndrome: Subjective and Objective Measures of Dyscognition.
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<p><strong>Objectives: </strong>Our understanding of brain fog, or dyscognition, among youth with juvenile fibromyalgia syndrome is limited. We aimed to determine the prevalence of subjective (self-reported) and objective dyscognition, as well as factors associated with subjective dyscognition in juvenile fibromyalgia syndrome.</p>
<p><strong>Methods: </strong>A cross-sectional cohort study of patients ( = 31) 12-17 years old diagnosed with primary juvenile fibromyalgia syndrome and one of their parents from 2017 to 2019. Subjects completed a series of survey measures and patients completed a brief neurocognitive battery. Subjective dyscognition was determined based on scores on the Pediatric Quality of Life Inventory (PedsQL) Cognitive Functioning Scale and Behavior Rating Inventory of Executive Function (BRIEF-2) global executive composite (GEC). Objective dyscognition was defined as impairment of more than two standard deviations in any of the neurocognitive domains. We used Fisher's exact test or Wilcoxon rank-sum test, as appropriate, to compare clinical patients based on the presence of dyscognition. Multivariable logistic regression modeling was performed to determine factors associated with subjective dyscognition.</p>
<p><strong>Results: </strong>Of the 31 subjects, 65% reported subjective dyscognition and 39% had objective dyscognition, primarily in the domains of psychomotor speed (23%), executive function (23%), and attention (3%). Subjective dyscognition was not indicative of objective dyscognition. Subjective dyscognition was independently associated with functional disability (OR: 1.19 [95% CI: 1.02-1.40]) and anxiety (OR: 1.12 [95% CI: 1.02-1.24]).</p>
<p><strong>Discussion: </strong>Adolescents with fibromyalgia predominantly experience subjective dyscognition but more than 1/3 also experience objective dyscognition. Future research should explore the impact of interdisciplinary rehabilitation programs on the treatment of dyscognition in youth with JFMS.</p>