Characterizing Health Inequities for the U.S. Transgender Hispanic Population Using the Behavioral Risk Factor Surveillance System.
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<p>This study aims to describe health inequities experienced by transgender Hispanic (TH) individuals in the United States. This retrospective case-control study used the Behavioral Risk Factor Surveillance System (BRFSS) data from 2014 to 2018. Propensity score matching and logistic and negative binomial regression were used to compare TH survey respondents with other relevant populations across the following outcomes: health care access, health risk factors, self-reported chronic conditions, and perceived health status. Relative to transgender White (TW) respondents, TH respondents (=414) were less likely to report having health insurance (odds ratio [OR]: 0.35, <0.001), a regular provider (OR=0.40, <0.001), and were more likely to report cost barriers to care (OR=1.85, <0.001) and HIV risk factors (OR=2.41, <0.001). Similar results were found when comparing outcomes with cisgender White respondents. TH respondents reported fewer days of poor health (rate ratio [RR]=0.67, <0.001), activity limited days (RR=0.64, =0.011), and were less likely to report depression (OR=0.44, <0.001) than TW respondents. Relative to cisgender Hispanic (CH) respondents, TH respondents experienced more cost barriers (OR=1.56, =0.003), higher HIV risk (OR=3.38, <0.001), and more activity limited days (RR=2.93, <0.001). Our results demonstrate that TH individuals may be less likely to have access to health care and have poorer health-related quality-of-life when compared with either CH or TW individuals. It is vital that additional research further elucidate the challenges faced by this multiply marginalized population including racism and transphobia. Further health care solutions should be responsive to the unique challenges of the TH population at the individual and institutional level.</p>