Candidemia in children: Epidemiology, prevention and management.
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<p>Candidemia is the leading cause of invasive fungal infections in hospitalised children. The highest rates of candidemia have been recorded in neonates and infants <1 year of age. Candidemia is more frequent in neonates and young infants than in adults, and is associated with better clinical outcomes, but higher inpatient costs. Over the last 10 years, a declining trend has been noted in the incidence of paediatric candidemia in the US and elsewhere due to the hospital-wide implementation of central-line insertion and maintenance bundles that emphasise full sterile barrier precautions, chlorhexidine skin preparation during line insertion, meticulous site and tubing care, and daily discussion of catheter necessity. Additional interventions aiming at reducing gut-associated candidemia are required in immunocompromised and critically ill children.</p>