Associations of neighbourhood crime with adverse pregnancy outcomes among women in Chicago: analysis of electronic health records from 2009 to 2013.
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<p><strong>BACKGROUND: </strong>Adverse pregnancy outcomes are associated with higher cardiovascular disease risk among mothers and future health problems of offspring. Neighbourhood crime may contribute to adverse pregnancy outcomes by increasing chronic stress, yet the association has been relatively understudied.</p>
<p><strong>METHODS: </strong>Electronic health records from 34 383 singleton births at a single hospital in Chicago (2009-2013) were geocoded and linked to 1-year rates of police-recorded crime at the neighbourhood (Chicago community area) level. Crimes included homicide, assault/battery, criminal offences and incivilities. Cross-sectional associations of total neighbourhood crime rates with hypertensive disease of pregnancy (HDP: pre-eclampsia/gestational hypertension), preterm birth (PTB), spontaneous preterm birth (sPTB) and small-for-gestational-age (SGA) birth were assessed using multilevel logistic regression with community-area random intercepts. Models controlled for maternal and infant characteristics and neighbourhood poverty. We then assessed associations between individual crime categories and all outcomes.</p>
<p><strong>RESULTS: </strong>Total neighbourhood crime rates ranged from 11.6 to 303.5 incidents per 1000 persons per year (mean: 61.5, SD: 40.3). A 1-SD higher total neighbourhood crime rate was associated with higher odds of HDP (OR: 1.06, 95% CI 1.00 to 1.13), PTB (OR: 1.09, 95% CI 1.03 to 1.15), sPTB (OR: 1.09, 95% CI 1.03 to 1.16) and SGA (OR: 1.05, 95% CI 1.01 to 1.10) in fully adjusted models. Associations were generally consistent across crime categories, although only assault/battery and incivilities were associated with HDP.</p>
<p><strong>CONCLUSIONS: </strong>Higher neighbourhood crime rates were associated with small but significant increases in the odds of adverse pregnancy outcomes. Interventions that cultivate safer neighbourhoods may be a promising approach for improving pregnancy outcomes.</p>
J Epidemiol Community Health