Association between Prolonged Neutropenia and Reduced Relapse Risk in Pediatric AML: A Report from the Children's Oncology Group.

Year of Publication


Date Published

2016 Jun 16

ISSN Number



<p>Objective was to describe the relationship between the number of sterile site infections and duration of neutropenia during the first four cycles of chemotherapy and the risk of recurrence and overall survival. AAML0531 was a Children's Oncology Group (COG) randomized phase 3 clinical trial that included 1022 children with de novo AML. For this analysis, we focused on non-Down syndrome favorable and standard risk patients who completed at least 4 cycles of chemotherapy without recurrence or withdrawal during protocol therapy. Those receiving hematopoietic stem cell transplantation in first remission were excluded. 569 patients were included; 274 (48.2%) were favorable risk. The median cumulative time with neutropenia between Induction II to completion of Intensification II was 96 (range 54-204) days. Number of sterile site infections did not influence the risk of relapse or overall survival. However, longer duration of neutropenia was associated with a lower risk of relapse (hazard ratio 0.81 per 20 days neutropenia, P=0.007). Longer duration of neutropenia was associated with a reduced risk of relapse for children with favorable and standard risk AML. Toxicity may be influenced by pharmacogenomics suggesting that individualized chemotherapy dosing may be an effective strategy. This article is protected by copyright. All rights reserved.</p>



Alternate Title

Int. J. Cancer




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