First name
Marina
Last name
Mitrou

Title

Antiviral Toxicities in Pediatric Solid Organ Transplant Recipients.

Year of Publication

2022

Number of Pages

Date Published

08/2022

ISSN Number

1600-6143

Abstract

Prophylaxis with valganciclovir (VGCV) is used routinely to prevent cytomegalovirus (CMV) infections in at-risk pediatric solid organ transplant (SOT) recipients. However, the rate and factors associated with toxicities in this population are not well-described. We conducted a retrospective cohort study of children undergoing SOT at our hospital from January 2012 - June 2018. We evaluated the frequency of hematologic and renal toxicities from day 15 through 1-year post-SOT in relation to antiviral exposures, focused on VGCV prophylaxis. Marginal rate models were used to determine the risk of kidney injury and neutropenia in relation to VGCV prophylaxis. Among 281 SOTs, VGCV prophylaxis was administered on 20.1% of all follow-up days. The incidence rates of kidney injury, leukopenia, and neutropenia were significantly higher during VGCV prophylaxis compared to when no antiviral agents were given. Using multivariable marginal rate models, receipt of VGCV prophylaxis was associated with development of kidney injury (rate ratio [RR] 1.79, 95% confidence interval [CI]: 1.22-2.65) and neutropenia (RR 4.82, 95% CI: 3.08-7.55). VGCV dosing did not impact the development of kidney injury or neutropenia. Toxicities are common with VGCV prophylaxis in pediatric SOT recipients.

DOI

10.1111/ajt.17171

Alternate Title

Am J Transplant

PMID

35971847
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Title

CMV infection and management among pediatric solid organ transplant recipients.

Year of Publication

2022

Number of Pages

e14220

Date Published

2022 Jan 06

ISSN Number

1399-3046

Abstract

<p><strong>BACKGROUND: </strong>Cytomegalovirus (CMV) is an important cause of morbidity and mortality in pediatric solid organ transplant (SOT) recipients. However, the impact of asymptomatic CMV infections (ie, DNAemia) on clinical outcomes is not well established.</p>

<p><strong>METHODS: </strong>We performed a retrospective cohort study of children undergoing first SOT at our institution from January 2012 to June 2018. We evaluated the epidemiology of CMV infections and performed multivariable Cox regression to assess the association between CMV DNAemia without disease or CMV disease (syndrome or end-organ disease) on negative outcomes (death, re-transplantation, or moderate/severe rejection) within the first year after SOT.</p>

<p><strong>RESULTS: </strong>Among 271 individuals, 43 (15.9%) developed ≥1 CMV infection during the first year after SOT. There were 56 unique CMV infections including 14 episodes of CMV disease. In 167 patients offered CMV prophylaxis, only 8 (4.8%) developed their first CMV DNAemia episode while on prophylaxis 32 developed CMV DNAemia after prophylaxis completion; only 1 episode of CMV disease occurred while on antiviral prophylaxis. When accounting for receipt of ATG, oral steroids, and number of immunosuppressives on a given day, CMV disease was more strongly associated with negative outcomes (Hazard Ratio (HR): 3.28, 95% CI: 0.73-14.64; p&nbsp;=&nbsp;.12) than CMV DNAemia without disease (HR 1.42, 95% CI: 0.19- 10.79; p&nbsp;=&nbsp;.74), although not to a statistically significant degree.</p>

<p><strong>CONCLUSIONS: </strong>Most CMV infections occurred after completion of antiviral prophylaxis. CMV disease was more strongly associated with negative outcomes than asymptomatic CMV DNAemia and should be the focus of CMV prevention practices.</p>

DOI

10.1111/petr.14220

Alternate Title

Pediatr Transplant

PMID

34994041
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