First name
Matt
Last name
Hall

Title

Patient Characteristics Associated with Differences in Admission Frequency for Diabetic Ketoacidosis in United States Children's Hospitals.

Year of Publication

2016

Number of Pages

104-10

Date Published

2016 Apr

ISSN Number

1097-6833

Abstract

OBJECTIVES: To determine across and within hospital differences in the predictors of 365-day admission frequency for diabetic ketoacidosis (DKA) in children at US children's hospitals.

STUDY DESIGN: Multicenter retrospective cohort analysis of 12 449 children 2-18 years of age with a diagnosis of DKA in 42 US children's hospitals between 2004 and 2012. The main outcome of interest was the maximum number of DKA admissions experienced by each child within any 365-day interval during a 5-year follow-up period. The association between patient characteristics and the maximum number of DKA admissions within a 365-day interval was examined across and within hospitals.

RESULTS: In the sample, 28.3% of patients admitted for DKA experienced at least 1 additional DKA admission within the following 365 days. Across hospitals, patient characteristics associated with increasing DKA admission frequency were public insurance (OR 1.97, 95% CI 1.71-2.26), non-Hispanic black race (OR 2.40, 95% CI 2.02-2.85), age ≥12 (OR 1.98, 95% CI 1.7-2.32), female sex (OR 1.41, 95% CI 1.29-1.55), and mental health comorbidity (OR 1.36, 95% CI 1.13-1.62). Within hospitals, non-Hispanic black race was associated with higher odds of 365-day admission in 59% of hospitals, and public insurance was associated with higher odds in 56% of hospitals. Older age, female sex, and mental health comorbidity were associated with higher odds of 365-day admission in 42%, 29%, and 15% of hospitals, respectively.

CONCLUSIONS: Across children's hospitals, certain patient characteristics are associated with more frequent DKA admissions. However, these factors are not associated with increased DKA admission frequency for all hospitals.

DOI

10.1016/j.jpeds.2015.12.015

Alternate Title

J. Pediatr.

PMID

26787380

Title

The Design of a Data Management System for a Multicenter Palliative Care Cohort Study.

Year of Publication

2022

Date Published

2022 Mar 23

ISSN Number

1873-6513

Abstract

<p><strong>CONTEXT: </strong>Prospective cohort studies of individuals with serious illness and their family members, such as children receiving palliative care and their parents, pose challenges regarding data management.</p>

<p><strong>OBJECTIVE: </strong>To describe the design and lessons learned regarding the data management system for the Pediatric Palliative Care Research Network's SHAred Data and REsearch (SHARE) project, a multicenter prospective cohort study of children receiving pediatric palliative care (PPC) and their parents, and to describe important attributes of this system, with specific considerations for the design of future studies.</p>

<p><strong>METHODS: </strong>The SHARE study consists of 643 PPC patients and up to two of their parents who enrolled from April 2017 to December 2020 at 7 children's hospitals across the United States. Data regarding demographics, patient symptoms, goals of care, and other characteristics were collected directly from parents or patients at 6 timepoints over a 24-month follow-up period and stored electronically in a centralized location. Using medical record numbers, primary collected data was linked to administrative hospitalization data containing diagnostic and procedure codes and other data elements. Important attributes of the data infrastructure include linkage of primary and administrative data; centralized availability of multilingual questionnaires; electronic data collection and storage system; time-stamping of instrument completion; and a separate but connected study administrative database used to track enrollment.</p>

<p><strong>CONCLUSIONS: </strong>Investigators planning future multicenter prospective cohort studies can consider attributes of the data infrastructure we describe when designing their data management system.</p>

DOI

10.1016/j.jpainsymman.2022.03.006

Alternate Title

J Pain Symptom Manage

PMID

35339611

Title

Surgical Interventions During End-of-Life Hospitalizations in Children's Hospitals.

Year of Publication

2021

Date Published

2021 12 01

ISSN Number

1098-4275

Abstract

<p><strong>OBJECTIVES: </strong>To characterize patterns of surgery among pediatric patients during terminal hospitalizations in children's hospitals.</p>

<p><strong>METHODS: </strong>We reviewed patients ≤20 years of age who died among 4 424 886 hospitalizations from January 2013-December 2019 within 49 US children's hospitals in the Pediatric Health Information System database. Surgical procedures, identified by International Classification of Diseases procedure codes, were classified by type and purpose. Descriptive statistics characterized procedures, and hypothesis testing determined if undergoing surgery varied by patient age, race and ethnicity, or the presence of chronic complex conditions (CCCs).</p>

<p><strong>RESULTS: </strong>Among 33 693 terminal hospitalizations, the majority (n = 30 440, 90.3%) of children were admitted for nontraumatic causes. Of these children, 15 142 (49.7%) underwent surgery during the hospitalization, with the percentage declining over time (P &lt; .001). When surgical procedures were classified according to likely purpose, the most common were to insert or address hardware or catheters (31%), explore or aid in diagnosis (14%), attempt to rescue patient from mortality (13%), or obtain a biopsy (13%). Specific CCC types were associated with undergoing surgery. Surgery during terminal hospitalization was less likely among Hispanic children (47.8%; P &lt; .001), increasingly less likely as patient age increased, and more so for Black, Asian American, and Hispanic patients compared with white patients (P &lt; .001).</p>

<p><strong>CONCLUSIONS: </strong>Nearly half of children undergo surgery during their terminal hospitalization, and accordingly, pediatric surgical care is an important aspect of end-of-life care in hospital settings. Differences observed across race and ethnicity categories of patients may reflect different preferences for and access to nonhospital-based palliative, hospice, and end-of-life care.</p>

DOI

10.1542/peds.2020-047464

Alternate Title

Pediatrics

PMID

34850192

Title

Pediatric palliative care parents' distress, financial difficulty, and child symptoms.

Year of Publication

2021

Date Published

2021 Aug 20

ISSN Number

1873-6513

Abstract

<p><strong>CONTEXT: </strong>Parents of patients with a serious illness experience psychological distress, which impacts parents' wellbeing and, potentially, their ability to care for their children. Parent psychological distress may be influenced by children's symptom burden and by families' financial difficulty.</p>

<p><strong>OBJECTIVES: </strong>This study examined the associations among parent psychological distress, parent-reported patient symptoms, and financial difficulty, seeking to determine the relative association of financial difficulty and of patient symptoms to parent psychological distress.</p>

<p><strong>METHODS: </strong>Cross-sectional study of baseline data for 601 parents of 532 pediatric palliative care patients enrolled in a prospective cohort study conducted at seven US children's hospitals. Data included self-reported parent psychological distress and parent report of child's symptoms and family financial difficulty. We used ordinary least squares multiple regressions to examine the association between psychological distress and symptom score, between psychological distress and financial difficulty, and whether the degree of financial difficulty modified the relationship between psychological distress and symptom score.</p>

<p><strong>RESULTS: </strong>The majority of parents were moderately distressed (52%) or severely distressed (17%) and experienced some degree of financial difficulty (65%). While children's symptom scores and family financial difficulty together explained more of the variance in parental psychological distress than either variable alone, parental distress was associated more strongly, and to a larger degree, with financial difficulty than with symptom scores alone.</p>

<p><strong>CONCLUSIONS: </strong>Parent psychological distress was associated with parent-reported patient symptoms and financial difficulty. Future work should examine these relationships longitudinally, and whether interventions to improve symptom management and ameliorate financial difficulties improve parental outcomes.</p>

DOI

10.1016/j.jpainsymman.2021.08.004

Alternate Title

J Pain Symptom Manage

PMID

34425212

Title

Polysymptomatology in Pediatric Patients Receiving Palliative Care Based on Parent-Reported Data.

Year of Publication

2021

Number of Pages

e2119730

Date Published

2021 Aug 02

ISSN Number

2574-3805

Abstract

<p><strong>Importance: </strong>Pediatric palliative care treats patients with a wide variety of advanced illness conditions, often with substantial levels of pain and other symptoms. Clinical and research advancements regarding symptom management for these patients are hampered by the scarcity of data on symptoms as well as an overreliance on clinician report.</p>

<p><strong>Objective: </strong>To provide a detailed description of the symptoms among patients receiving pediatric palliative care based on parental report via a validated, structured symptom assessment measure.</p>

<p><strong>Design, Setting, and Participants: </strong>Baseline data for this cross-sectional analysis were collected between April 10, 2017, and February 5, 2020, from pediatric palliative care programs in 7 children's hospitals located in Akron, Ohio; Boston, Massachusetts; Birmingham, Alabama; Houston, Texas; Minneapolis, Minnesota; Philadelphia, Pennsylvania; and Seattle, Washington. Data were collected in the hospital, outpatient, and home setting from patients 30 years of age or younger who were receiving pediatric palliative care at 1 of the study sites.</p>

<p><strong>Exposures: </strong>Analyses were stratified by patients' demographic characteristics, including age, and by whether the patients had received a diagnosis of any of 10 non-mutually exclusive complex chronic condition categories.</p>

<p><strong>Main Outcomes and Measures: </strong>Twenty symptoms measured via the modified Memorial Symptom Assessment Scale, which scores the frequency and severity of any symptom that is present and provides a total symptom score.</p>

<p><strong>Results: </strong>Among the first 501 patients enrolled, the median age was 4.1 years (interquartile range, 0.8-12.9 years), 267 (53.3%) were male, and 356 (71.1%) were White. The most prevalent complex chronic conditions included gastrointestinal (357 [71.3%]), neurologic (289 [57.7%]), and cardiovascular (310 [61.9%]) conditions; 438 patients (87.4%) were technology dependent. Parents reported a mean (SD) of 6.7 (3.4) symptoms per patient and a median of 7 symptoms (interquartile range, 4-9 symptoms). A total of 367 patients (73.3%) had 5 or more symptoms. The 5 most prevalent symptoms were pain (319 [63.7%]; 95% CI, 59.4%-67.8%), lack of energy (295 [58.9%]; 95% CI, 54.5%-63.1%), irritability (280 [55.9%]; 95% CI, 51.5%-60.2%), drowsiness (247 [49.3%]; 95% CI, 44.9%-53.7%), and shortness of breath (232 [46.3%]; 95% CI, 41.9%-50.7%). Although older patients were reported by parents as having experienced more symptoms and having higher total symptom scores, variation across condition categories was relatively minor. Patients in the upper 10th percentile of total symptom scores had a median of 12.0 symptoms (interquartile range, 11-13).</p>

<p><strong>Conclusions and Relevance: </strong>In this cross-sectional study, most children receiving palliative care were experiencing polysymptomatology. An important subgroup of patients frequently experienced numerous severe symptoms. Assessment and management of patients with polysymptomatology are critical aspects of pediatric palliative care.</p>

DOI

10.1001/jamanetworkopen.2021.19730

Alternate Title

JAMA Netw Open

PMID

34351400

Title

Identifying Conditions With High Prevalence, Cost, and Variation in Cost in US Children's Hospitals.

Year of Publication

2021

Number of Pages

e2117816

Date Published

2021 Jul 01

ISSN Number

2574-3805

Abstract

<p><strong>Importance: </strong>Identifying high priority pediatric conditions is important for setting a research agenda in hospital pediatrics that will benefit families, clinicians, and the health care system. However, the last such prioritization study was conducted more than a decade ago and used International Classification of Diseases, Ninth Revision, Clinical Modification (ICD-9-CM) codes.</p>

<p><strong>Objectives: </strong>To identify conditions that should be prioritized for comparative effectiveness research based on prevalence, cost, and variation in cost of hospitalizations using contemporary data at US children's hospitals.</p>

<p><strong>Design, Setting, and Participants: </strong>This retrospective cohort study of children with hospital encounters used data from the Pediatric Health Information System database. Children younger than 18 years with inpatient hospital encounters at 45 tertiary care US children's hospitals between January 1, 2016, and December 31, 2019, were included. Data were analyzed from March 2020 to April 2021.</p>

<p><strong>Main Outcomes and Measures: </strong>The condition-specific prevalence and total standardized cost, the corresponding prevalence and cost ranks, and the variation in standardized cost per encounter across hospitals were analyzed. The variation in cost was assessed using the number of outlier hospitals and intraclass correlation coefficient.</p>

<p><strong>Results: </strong>There were 2 882 490 inpatient hospital encounters (median [interquartile range] age, 4 [1-12] years; 1 554 024 [53.9%] boys) included. Among the 50 most prevalent and 50 most costly conditions (total, 74 conditions), 49 (66.2%) were medical, 15 (20.3%) were surgical, and 10 (13.5%) were medical/surgical. The top 10 conditions by cost accounted for $12.4 billion of $33.4 billion total costs (37.4%) and 592 815 encounters (33.8% of all encounters). Of 74 conditions, 4 conditions had an intraclass correlation coefficient (ICC) of 0.30 or higher (ie, major depressive disorder: ICC, 0.49; type 1 diabetes with complications: ICC, 0.36; diabetic ketoacidosis: ICC, 0.33; acute appendicitis without peritonitis: ICC, 0.30), and 9 conditions had an ICC higher than 0.20 (scoliosis: ICC, 0.27; hypertrophy of tonsils and adenoids: ICC, 0.26; supracondylar fracture of humerus: ICC, 0.25; cleft lip and palate: ICC, 0.24; acute appendicitis with peritonitis: ICC, 0.21). Examples of conditions high in prevalence, cost, and variation in cost included major depressive disorder (cost rank, 19; prevalence rank, 10; ICC, 0.49), scoliosis (cost rank, 6; prevalence rank, 38; ICC, 0.27), acute appendicitis with peritonitis (cost rank, 13; prevalence rank, 11; ICC, 0.21), asthma (cost rank, 10; prevalence rank, 2; ICC, 0.17), and dehydration (cost rank, 24; prevalence rank, 8; ICC, 0.18).</p>

<p><strong>Conclusions and Relevance: </strong>This cohort study found that major depressive disorder, scoliosis, acute appendicitis with peritonitis, asthma, and dehydration were high in prevalence, costs, and variation in cost. These results could help identify where future comparative effectiveness research in hospital pediatrics should be targeted to improve the care and outcomes of hospitalized children.</p>

DOI

10.1001/jamanetworkopen.2021.17816

Alternate Title

JAMA Netw Open

PMID

34309667

Title

Intravenous Magnesium and Hospital Outcomes in Children Hospitalized With Asthma.

Year of Publication

2021

Date Published

2021 Jul 01

ISSN Number

2154-1671

Abstract

<p><strong>BACKGROUND: </strong>Use of intravenous magnesium (IVMg) for childhood asthma exacerbations has increased significantly in the last decade. Emergency department administration of IVMg has been shown to reduce asthma hospitalization, yet most children receiving IVMg in the emergency department are subsequently hospitalized. Our objective with the study was to examine hospital outcomes of children given IVMg for asthma exacerbations.</p>

<p><strong>METHODS: </strong>We conducted a retrospective cohort study using data from the Pediatric Health Information System. We used propensity score matching to compare children who received IVMg on the first day of hospitalization with those who did not. Primary outcomes were initiation and duration of noninvasive positive pressure ventilation. Secondary outcomes included mechanical ventilation (MV) initiation, duration of MV, length of stay, and subsequent tertiary medication use. Primary analysis was restricted to children admitted to nonintensive care inpatient units.</p>

<p><strong>RESULTS: </strong>Overall, 91 309 hospitalizations met inclusion criteria. IVMg was administered in 25 882 (28.4%) children. After propensity score matching, IVMg was not significantly associated with lower initiation (adjusted odds ratio 0.88; 95% confidence interval [CI] 0.74-1.05) or shorter duration of noninvasive positive pressure ventilation (rate ratio 0.94; 95% CI 0.87-1.02). Similarly, no significant associations were seen for MV initiation, MV duration, or length of stay. IVMg was associated with lower subsequent tertiary medication use (adjusted odds ratio 0.66; 95% CI 0.60-0.72). However, the association was lost when ipratropium was removed from the tertiary medication definition.</p>

<p><strong>CONCLUSIONS: </strong>IVMg administration was not significantly associated with improved hospital outcomes. Further study is needed to inform the optimal indications and timing of magnesium use during hospitalization.</p>

DOI

10.1542/hpeds.2020-004770

Alternate Title

Hosp Pediatr

PMID

34210764

Title

Trends in Intravenous Magnesium Use and Outcomes for Status Asthmaticus in Children's Hospitals from 2010 to 2017.

Year of Publication

2020

Number of Pages

403-406

Date Published

2020 07 01

ISSN Number

1553-5606

Abstract

<p>Intravenous (IV) magnesium is used as an adjunct therapy in management of status asthmaticus with a goal of reducing intubation rate. A recent review suggests that IV magnesium use in status asthmaticus reduces admission rates. This is contrary to the observation of practicing emergency room physicians. The goal of this study was to assess trends in IV magnesium use for status asthmaticus in US children's hospitals over 8 years through a retrospective analysis of children younger than 18 years using the Pediatric Health Information System database. Outcomes were IV magnesium use, inpatient and intensive care unit admission rate, geometric mean length of stay, and 7-day all-cause readmission rate. IV magnesium use for asthma hospitalization more than doubled over 8 years (17% vs. 36%; P &lt; .001). Yearly trends were not significantly associated with hospital or intensive care unit admission rate or 7-day all-cause readmissions, although length of stay was reduced (P &lt; .001).</p>

DOI

10.12788/jhm.3405

Alternate Title

J Hosp Med

PMID

32584247

Title

Trends in Length of Stay and Readmissions in Children's Hospitals.

Year of Publication

2021

Date Published

2021 May 04

ISSN Number

2154-1671

Abstract

<p><strong>BACKGROUND AND OBJECTIVES: </strong>Patient complexity at US children's hospitals is increasing. Hospitals experience concurrent pressure to reduce length of stay (LOS) and readmissions, yet little is known about how these common measures of resource use and quality have changed over time. Our aim was to examine temporal trends in medical complexity, hospital LOS, and readmissions across a sample of US children's hospitals.</p>

<p><strong>METHODS: </strong>Retrospective cohort study of hospitalized patients from 42 children's hospitals in the Pediatric Health Information System from 2013 to 2017. After excluding deaths, healthy newborns, obstetric care, and low volume service lines, we analyzed trends in medical complexity, LOS, and 14-day all-cause readmissions using generalized linear mixed effects models, adjusting for changes in patient factors and case-mix.</p>

<p><strong>RESULTS: </strong>Between 2013 and 2017, a total of 3 355 815 discharges were included. Over time, the mean case-mix index and the proportion of hospitalized patients with complex chronic conditions or receiving intensive care increased ( &lt; .001 for all). In adjusted analyses, mean LOS declined 3% (61.1 hours versus 59.3 hours from 2013 to 2017, &lt; .001), whereas 14-day readmissions were unchanged (7.0% vs 6.9%; = .03). Reductions in adjusted LOS were noted in both medical and surgical service lines (3.6% and 2.0% decline, respectively; &lt; .001).</p>

<p><strong>CONCLUSIONS: </strong>Across US children's hospitals, adjusted LOS declined whereas readmissions remained stable, suggesting that children's hospitals are providing more efficient care for an increasingly complex patient population.</p>

DOI

10.1542/hpeds.2020-004044

Alternate Title

Hosp Pediatr

PMID

33947746

Title

Readmissions Following Hospitalization for Infection in Children With or Without Medical Complexity.

Year of Publication

2021

Number of Pages

134-141

Date Published

2021 Mar

ISSN Number

1553-5606

Abstract

<p><strong>OBJECTIVE: </strong>To describe the prevalence and characteristics of infection-related readmissions in children and to identify opportunities for readmission reduction and estimate associated cost savings.</p>

<p><strong>STUDY DESIGN: </strong>Retrospective analysis of 380,067 nationally representative index hospitalizations for children using the 2014 Nationwide Readmissions Database. We compared 30-day, all-cause unplanned readmissions and costs across 22 infection categories. We used the Inpatient Essentials database to measure hospital-level readmission rates and to establish readmission benchmarks for individual infections. We then estimated the number of readmissions avoided and costs saved if hospitals achieved the 10th percentile of hospitals' readmission rates (ie, readmission benchmark). All analyses were stratified by the presence/absence of a complex chronic condition (CCC).</p>

<p><strong>RESULTS: </strong>The overall 30-day readmission rate was 4.9%. Readmission rates varied substantially across infections and by presence/absence of a CCC (CCC: range, 0%-21.6%; no CCC: range, 1.5%-8.6%). Approximately 42.6% of readmissions (n = 3,576) for children with a CCC and 54.7% of readmissions (n = 5,507) for children without a CCC could have been potentially avoided if hospitals achieved infection-specific benchmark readmission rates, which could result in an estimated savings of $70.8 million and $44.5 million, respectively. Bronchiolitis, pneumonia, and upper respiratory tract infections were among infections with the greatest number of potentially avoidable readmissions and cost savings for children with and without a CCC.</p>

<p><strong>CONCLUSION: </strong>Readmissions following hospitalizations for infection in children vary significantly by infection type. To improve hospital resource use for infections, future preventative measures may prioritize children with complex chronic conditions and those with specific diagnoses (eg, respiratory illnesses).</p>

DOI

10.12788/jhm.3505

Alternate Title

J Hosp Med

PMID

33617439

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