First name
Meghan
Middle name
E
Last name
Hofto

Title

Comparison of the Respiratory Resistomes and Microbiota in Children Receiving Short versus Standard Course Treatment for Community-Acquired Pneumonia.

Year of Publication

2022

Number of Pages

e0019522

Date Published

2022 Mar 24

ISSN Number

2150-7511

Abstract

<p>Pediatric community-acquired pneumonia (CAP) is often treated with 10 days of antibiotics. Shorter treatment strategies may be effective and lead to less resistance. The impact of duration of treatment on the respiratory microbiome is unknown. Data are from children ( = 171), ages 6 to 71 months, enrolled in the SCOUT-CAP trial (NCT02891915). Children with CAP were randomized to a short (5 days) versus standard (10 days) beta-lactam treatment strategy. Throat swabs were collected at enrollment and the end of the study and used for shotgun metagenomic sequencing. The number of beta-lactam and multidrug efflux resistance genes per prokaryotic cell (RGPC) was significantly lower in children receiving the short compared to standard treatment strategy at the end of the study (Wilcoxon rank sum test,  &lt; 0.05 for each). Wilcoxon effect sizes were small for beta-lactam (: 0.15; 95% confidence interval [CI], 0.01 to 0.29) and medium for multidrug efflux RGPC (: 0.23; 95% CI, 0.09 to 0.37). Analyses comparing the resistome at the beginning and end of the trial indicated that in contrast to the standard strategy group, the resistome significantly differed in children receiving the short course strategy. Relative abundances of commensals such as Neisseria subflava were higher in children receiving the standard strategy, and species and Veillonella parvula were higher in children receiving the short course strategy. We conclude that children receiving 5 days of beta-lactam therapy for CAP had a significantly lower abundance of antibiotic resistance determinants than those receiving standard 10-day treatment. These data provide an additional rationale for reductions in antibiotic use when feasible. Antibiotic resistance is a major threat to public health. Treatment strategies involving shorter antibiotic courses have been proposed as a strategy to lower the potential for antibiotic resistance. We examined relationships between the duration of antibiotic treatment and its impact on resistance genes and bacteria in the respiratory microbiome using data from a randomized controlled trial of beta-lactam therapy for pediatric pneumonia. The randomized design provides reliable evidence of the effectiveness of interventions and minimizes the potential for confounding. Children receiving 5 days of therapy for pneumonia had a lower prevalence of two different types of resistance genes than did those receiving the 10-day treatment. Our data also suggest that children receiving longer durations of therapy have a greater abundance of antibiotic resistance genes for a longer period of time than do children receiving shorter durations of therapy. These data provide an additional rationale for reductions in antibiotic use.</p>

DOI

10.1128/mbio.00195-22

Alternate Title

mBio

PMID

35323040

Title

Gastrointestinal Microbiome Disruption and Antibiotic-Associated Diarrhea in Children Receiving Antibiotic Therapy for Community-Acquired Pneumonia.

Year of Publication

2022

Date Published

2022 Mar 06

ISSN Number

1537-6613

Abstract

<p>Antibiotic-associated diarrhea (AAD) is a common side effect of antibiotics. We examined the gastrointestinal microbiota in children treated with beta-lactams for community-acquired pneumonia. Data were from 66 children (n=198 samples), ages 6-71 months, enrolled in the SCOUT-CAP trial (NCT02891915). AAD was defined as ≥1 day of diarrhea. Stool samples were collected on study days 1, 6-10, and 19-25. Samples were analyzed using 16s-rRNA gene sequencing to identify associations between patient characteristics, microbiota characteristics, and AAD (yes/no). Nineteen (29%) children developed AAD. Microbiota compositional profiles differed between AAD groups (PERMANOVA, P &lt; 0.03) and across visits (P &lt; 0.001). Children with higher baseline relative abundances of two Bacteroides species were less likely to experience AAD. Higher baseline abundance of Lachnospiraceae and amino acid biosynthesis pathways were associated with AAD. Children in the AAD group experienced prolonged dysbiosis (P &lt; 0.05). Specific gastrointestinal microbiota profiles are associated with AAD in children.</p>

DOI

10.1093/infdis/jiac082

Alternate Title

J Infect Dis

PMID

35249113

Title

Short- vs Standard-Course Outpatient Antibiotic Therapy for Community-Acquired Pneumonia in Children: The SCOUT-CAP Randomized Clinical Trial.

Year of Publication

2022

Date Published

2022 Jan 18

ISSN Number

2168-6211

Abstract

<p><strong>Importance: </strong>Childhood community-acquired pneumonia (CAP) is usually treated with 10 days of antibiotics. Shorter courses may be effective with fewer adverse effects and decreased potential for antibiotic resistance.</p>

<p><strong>Objective: </strong>To compare a short (5-day) vs standard (10-day) antibiotic treatment strategy for CAP in young children.</p>

<p><strong>Design, Setting, and Participants: </strong>Randomized double-blind placebo-controlled clinical trial in outpatient clinic, urgent care, or emergency settings in 8 US cities. A total of 380 healthy children aged 6 to 71 months with nonsevere CAP demonstrating early clinical improvement were enrolled from December 2, 2016, to December 16, 2019. Data were analyzed from January to September 2020.</p>

<p><strong>Intervention: </strong>On day 6 of their originally prescribed therapy, participants were randomized 1:1 to receive 5 days of matching placebo or 5 additional days of the same antibiotic.</p>

<p><strong>Main Outcomes and Measures: </strong>The primary end point was the end-of-treatment response adjusted for duration of antibiotic risk (RADAR), a composite end point that ranks each child's clinical response, resolution of symptoms, and antibiotic-associated adverse effects in an ordinal desirability of outcome ranking (DOOR). Within each DOOR rank, participants were further ranked by the number of antibiotic days, assuming that shorter antibiotic durations were more desirable. Using RADAR, the probability of a more desirable outcome was estimated for the short- vs standard-course strategy. In a subset of children, throat swabs were collected between study days 19 and 25 to quantify antibiotic resistance genes in oropharyngeal flora.</p>

<p><strong>Results: </strong>A total of 380 children (189 randomized to short course and 191 randomized to standard course) made up the study population. The mean (SD) age was 35.7 (17.2) months, and 194 participants (51%) were male. Of the included children, 8 were Asian, 99 were Black or African American, 234 were White, 32 were multiracial, and 7 were of unknown or unreported race; 33 were Hispanic or Latino, 344 were not Hispanic or Latino, and 3 were of unknown or unreported ethnicity. There were no differences between strategies in the DOOR or its individual components. Fewer than 10% of children in either strategy had an inadequate clinical response. The short-course strategy had a 69% (95% CI, 63-75) probability of a more desirable RADAR outcome compared with the standard-course strategy. A total of 171 children were included in the resistome analysis. The median (range) number of antibiotic resistance genes per prokaryotic cell (RGPC) was significantly lower in the short-course strategy compared with the standard-course strategy for total RGPC (1.17 [0.35-2.43] vs 1.33 [0.46-11.08]; P = .01) and β-lactamase RGPC (0.55 [0.18-1.24] vs 0.60 [0.21-2.45]; P = .03).</p>

<p><strong>Conclusions and Relevance: </strong>In this study, among children responding to initial treatment for outpatient CAP, a 5-day antibiotic strategy was superior to a 10-day strategy. The shortened approach resulted in similar clinical response and antibiotic-associated adverse effects, while reducing antibiotic exposure and resistance.</p>

<p><strong>Trial Registration: </strong>ClinicalTrials.gov Identifier: NCT02891915.</p>

DOI

10.1001/jamapediatrics.2021.5547

Alternate Title

JAMA Pediatr

PMID

35040920

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