First name
Sydney
Last name
Shuster

Title

Multicenter Prospective Study of Biomarkers for Diagnosis of Invasive Candidiasis in Children and Adolescents.

Year of Publication

2022

Date Published

2022 Jan 20

ISSN Number

1537-6591

Abstract

<p><strong>BACKGROUND: </strong>Diagnosis of invasive candidiasis (IC) relies on insensitive cultures; the relative utility of fungal biomarkers in children is unclear.</p>

<p><strong>METHODS: </strong>This multinational observational cohort study enrolled patients aged &gt;120 days and &lt;18 years with concern for IC from 1 January 2015 to 26 September 2019 at 25 centers. Blood collected at onset of symptoms was tested using T2Candida, Fungitell (1→3)-β-D-glucan, Platelia Candida Antigen (Ag) Plus, and Platelia Candida Antibody (Ab) Plus assays. Operating characteristics were determined for each biomarker, and assays meeting a defined threshold considered in combination. Sterile site cultures were the reference standard.</p>

<p><strong>RESULTS: </strong>Five hundred participants were enrolled at 22 centers in 3 countries, and IC was diagnosed in 13 (2.6%). Thirteen additional blood specimens were collected and successfully spiked with Candida species, to achieve a 5.0% event rate. Valid T2Candida, Fungitell, Platelia Candida Ag Plus, and Platelia Candida Ab Plus assay results were available for 438, 467, 473, and 473 specimens, respectively. Operating characteristics for T2Candida were most optimal for detecting IC due to any Candida species, with results as follows: sensitivity, 80.0% (95% confidence interval, 59.3%-93.2%), specificity 97.1% (95.0%-98.5%), positive predictive value, 62.5% (43.7%-78.9%), and negative predictive value, 98.8% (97.2%-99.6%). Only T2Candida and Platelia Candida Ag Plus assays met the threshold for combination testing. Positive result for either yielded the following results: sensitivity, 86.4% (95% confidence interval, 65.1%- 97.1%); specificity, 94.7% (92.0%-96.7%); positive predictive value, 47.5% (31.5%-63.9%); and negative predictive value, 99.2% (97.7%-99.8%).</p>

<p><strong>CONCLUSIONS: </strong>T2Candida alone or in combination with Platelia Candida Ag Plus may be beneficial for rapid detection of Candida species in children with concern for IC.</p>

<p><strong>CLINICAL TRIALS REGISTRATION: </strong>NCT02220790.</p>

DOI

10.1093/cid/ciab928

Alternate Title

Clin Infect Dis

PMID

35134165

Title

Evolution of severe acute respiratory coronavirus virus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) seroprevalence among employees of a US academic children's hospital during coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) pandemic.

Year of Publication

2021

Number of Pages

1-9

Date Published

2021 Dec 02

ISSN Number

1559-6834

Abstract

<p><strong>OBJECTIVE: </strong>To describe the cumulative seroprevalence of severe acute respiratory coronavirus virus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) antibodies during the coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) pandemic among employees of a large pediatric healthcare system.</p>

<p><strong>DESIGN, SETTING, AND PARTICIPANTS: </strong>Prospective observational cohort study open to adult employees at the Children's Hospital of Philadelphia, conducted April 20-December 17, 2020.</p>

<p><strong>METHODS: </strong>Employees were recruited starting with high-risk exposure groups, utilizing e-mails, flyers, and announcements at virtual town hall meetings. At baseline, 1 month, 2 months, and 6 months, participants reported occupational and community exposures and gave a blood sample for SARS-CoV-2 antibody measurement by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assays (ELISAs). A post hoc Cox proportional hazards regression model was performed to identify factors associated with increased risk for seropositivity.</p>

<p><strong>RESULTS: </strong>In total, 1,740 employees were enrolled. At 6 months, the cumulative seroprevalence was 5.3%, which was below estimated community point seroprevalence. Seroprevalence was 5.8% among employees who provided direct care and was 3.4% among employees who did not perform direct patient care. Most participants who were seropositive at baseline remained positive at follow-up assessments. In a post hoc analysis, direct patient care (hazard ratio [HR], 1.95; 95% confidence interval [CI], 1.03-3.68), Black race (HR, 2.70; 95% CI, 1.24-5.87), and exposure to a confirmed case in a nonhealthcare setting (HR, 4.32; 95% CI, 2.71-6.88) were associated with statistically significant increased risk for seropositivity.</p>

<p><strong>CONCLUSIONS: </strong>Employee SARS-CoV-2 seroprevalence rates remained below the point-prevalence rates of the surrounding community. Provision of direct patient care, Black race, and exposure to a confirmed case in a nonhealthcare setting conferred increased risk. These data can inform occupational protection measures to maximize protection of employees within the workplace during future COVID-19 waves or other epidemics.</p>

DOI

10.1017/ice.2021.487

Alternate Title

Infect Control Hosp Epidemiol

PMID

34852866

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