First name
Eric
Middle name
C
Last name
Eichenwald

Title

Group B Streptococcus Infection in Extremely Preterm Neonates and Neurodevelopmental Outcomes at 2 Years.

Year of Publication

2022

Number of Pages

1405-1415

Date Published

10/2022

ISSN Number

1537-6591

Abstract

BACKGROUND: This study was performed to determine the incidence of group B Streptococcus (GBS) disease among extremely preterm infants and assess to risk of death or neurodevelopmental impairment (NDI) at a corrected age of 18-26 months.

METHODS: In this observational cohort study of infants enrolled in a multicenter registry, the incidence of GBS disease was assessed in infants born in 1998-2016 at 22-28 weeks' gestation and surviving for >12 hours. The composite outcome, death or NDI, was assessed in infants born in 1998-2014 at 22-26 weeks' gestation. Infection was defined as GBS isolation in blood or cerebrospinal fluid culture at ≤72 hours (early-onset disease [EOD]) or >72 hours (late-onset disease [LOD]) after birth. Using Poisson regression models, the outcome was compared in infants with GBS disease, infants infected with other pathogens, and uninfected infants.

RESULTS: The incidence of GBS EOD (2.70/1000 births [95% confidence interval (CI), 2.15-3.36]) and LOD (8.47/1000 infants [7.45-9.59]) did not change significantly over time. The adjusted relative risk of death/NDI was higher among infants with GBS EOD than in those with other infections (adjusted relative risk, 1.22 [95% CI, 1.02-1.45]) and uninfected infants (1.44 [1.23-1.69]). Risk of death/NDI did not differ between infants with GBS LOD and comparator groups. GBS LOD occurred at a significantly later age than non-GBS late-onset infection. Among infants surviving >30 days, the risk of death was higher with GBS LOD (adjusted relative risk, 1.90 [95% CI, 1.36-2.67]), compared with uninfected infants.

CONCLUSIONS: In a cohort of extremely preterm infants, the incidence of GBS disease did not change during the study period. The increased risk of death or NDI with GBS EOD, and of death among some infants with GBS LOD, supports the need for novel preventive strategies for disease reduction.

CLINICAL TRIALS REGISTRATION: NCT00063063.

DOI

10.1093/cid/ciac222

Alternate Title

Clin Infect Dis

PMID

35323895

Title

Impact of Early-Onset Sepsis and Antibiotic Use on Death or Survival with Neurodevelopmental Impairment at 2 Years of Age among Extremely Preterm Infants.

Year of Publication

2020

Number of Pages

39-46.e5

Date Published

2020 Jun

ISSN Number

1097-6833

Abstract

OBJECTIVE: To evaluate the hypothesis that early-onset sepsis increases risk of death or neurodevelopmental impairment (NDI) among preterm infants; and that among infants without early-onset sepsis, prolonged early antibiotics alters risk of death/NDI.

STUDY DESIGN: Retrospective cohort study of infants born at the Eunice Kennedy Shriver National Institute of Child Health and Human Development Neonatal Research Network centers (2006-2014) at 22-26 weeks of gestation and birth weight 401-1000 g. Early-onset sepsis defined as growth of a pathogen from blood or cerebrospinal fluid culture ≤72 hours after birth. Prolonged early antibiotics was defined as antibiotics initiated ≤72 hours and continued ≥5 days without culture-confirmed infection, necrotizing enterocolitis, or spontaneous perforation. Primary outcome was death before follow-up or NDI assessed at 18-26 months corrected age. Poisson regression was used to estimate adjusted relative risk (aRR) and CI for early-onset sepsis outcomes. A propensity score for receiving prolonged antibiotics was derived from early clinical factors and used to match infants (1:1) with and without prolonged antibiotic exposure. Log binomial models were used to estimate aRR for outcomes in matched infants.

RESULTS: Among 6565 infants, those with early-onset sepsis had higher aRR (95% CI) for death/NDI compared with infants managed with prolonged antibiotics (1.18 [1.06-1.32]) and to infants without prolonged antibiotics (1.23 [1.10-1.37]). Propensity score matching was achieved for 4362 infants. No significant difference in death/NDI (1.04 [0.98-1.11]) was observed with or without prolonged antibiotics among the matched cohort.

CONCLUSIONS: Early-onset sepsis was associated with increased risk of death/NDI among extremely preterm infants. Among matched infants without culture-confirmed infection, prolonged early antibiotic administration was not associated with death/NDI.

DOI

10.1016/j.jpeds.2020.02.038

Alternate Title

J. Pediatr.

PMID

32446491

Title

Group B Streptococcal Infection in Extremely Preterm Neonates and Neurodevelopmental Outcomes at 2 Years.

Year of Publication

2022

Date Published

2022 Mar 22

ISSN Number

1537-6591

Abstract

<p><strong>BACKGROUND: </strong>Determine the incidence of GBS disease among extremely preterm infants and assess risk of death or neurodevelopmental impairment (NDI) at 18-26 months' corrected age.</p>

<p><strong>METHODS: </strong>Observational cohort study of infants enrolled in a multicenter registry. GBS disease incidence was assessed in infants born 1998-2016 at 22-28 weeks' gestation surviving &gt;12 hours. The composite outcome, death or NDI, was assessed in infants born 1998-2014 at 22-26 weeks' gestation. Infection was defined as GBS isolation in blood/CSF culture at ≤72 hours (early-onset disease, EOD) and &gt;72 hours (late-onset disease, LOD) after birth. The outcome was compared in infants with GBS disease, infants infected with other pathogens, and uninfected infants using Poisson regression models.</p>

<p><strong>RESULTS: </strong>Incidence of GBS EOD (2.70/1000 births [95% CI: 2.15-3.36]) and LOD (8.47/1000 infants [7.45-9.59]) did not change significantly over time. The adjusted relative risk (aRR, 95% CI) of death/NDI was higher among GBS EOD cases compared to infants with other infections (1.22, [1.02-1.45]) and uninfected infants (1.44, [1.23-1.69]). Death/NDI did not differ between infants with GBS LOD and comparator groups. GBS LOD occurred at a significantly later age than non-GBS late-onset infection. Among infants surviving &gt;30 days, the risk of death was higher with GBS LOD (1.90, [1.36-2.67]), compared to uninfected infants.</p>

<p><strong>CONCLUSIONS: </strong>In a cohort of extremely preterm infants, incidence of GBS disease did not change during the study period. Increased risk of death/NDI with GBS EOD, and of death among some infants with GBS LOD, supports the need for novel preventive strategies for disease reduction.</p>

DOI

10.1093/cid/ciac222

Alternate Title

Clin Infect Dis

PMID

35323895

Title

Association between postmenstrual age and furosemide dosing practices in very preterm infants.

Year of Publication

2022

Date Published

2022 Jan 24

ISSN Number

1476-5543

Abstract

<p><strong>OBJECTIVE: </strong>Furosemide renal clearance is slow after very preterm (VP) birth and increases with postnatal maturation. We compared furosemide dose frequency and total daily dose between postmenstrual age (PMA) groups in VP infants.</p>

<p><strong>STUDY DESIGN: </strong>Observational cohort study of VP infants exposed to a repeated-dose course of furosemide in Pediatrix neonatal intensive care units (NICU) from 1997 to 2016.</p>

<p><strong>RESULTS: </strong>We identified 6565 furosemide courses among 4638 infants. There were no statistically significant differences between PMA groups on the odds of receiving more frequent furosemide dosing. Furosemide courses initiated at &lt;28 weeks PMA were associated with a higher total daily dose than those initiated at a later PMA.</p>

<p><strong>CONCLUSIONS: </strong>Furosemide dosing practices in the NICU are similar across PMA groups, despite maturational changes in drug disposition. Research is needed to identify and test rational dosing strategies across the PMA spectrum for this commonly used but unproven pharmacotherapy.</p>

DOI

10.1038/s41372-022-01320-w

Alternate Title

J Perinatol

PMID

35075306

Title

Neurodevelopmental outcomes following neonatal late-onset sepsis and blood culture-negative conditions.

Year of Publication

2021

Date Published

2021 Jan 21

ISSN Number

1468-2052

Abstract

<p><strong>OBJECTIVE: </strong>Determine risk of death or neurodevelopmental impairment (NDI) in infants with late-onset sepsis (LOS) versus late-onset, antibiotic-treated, blood culture-negative conditions (LOCNC).</p>

<p><strong>DESIGN: </strong>Retrospective cohort study.</p>

<p><strong>SETTING: </strong>24 neonatal centres.</p>

<p><strong>PATIENTS: </strong>Infants born 1/1/2006-31/12/2014, at 22-26 weeks gestation, with birth weight 401-1000 g and surviving &gt;7 days were included. Infants with early-onset sepsis, necrotising enterocolitis, intestinal perforation or both LOS and LOCNC were excluded.</p>

<p><strong>EXPOSURES: </strong>LOS and LOCNC were defined as antibiotic administration for ≥5 days with and without a positive blood/cerebrospinal fluid culture, respectively. Infants with these diagnoses were also compared with infants with neither condition.</p>

<p><strong>OUTCOMES: </strong>Death or NDI was assessed at 18-26 months corrected age follow-up. Modified Poisson regression models were used to estimate relative risks adjusting for covariates occurring ≤7 days of age.</p>

<p><strong>RESULTS: </strong>Of 7354 eligible infants, 3940 met inclusion criteria: 786 (20%) with LOS, 1601 (41%) with LOCNC and 1553 (39%) with neither. Infants with LOS had higher adjusted relative risk (95% CI) for death/NDI (1.14 (1.05 to 1.25)) and death before follow-up (1.71 (1.44 to 2.03)) than those with LOCNC. Among survivors, risk for NDI did not differ between the two groups (0.99 (0.86 to 1.13)) but was higher for LOCNC infants (1.17 (1.04 to 1.31)) compared with unaffected infants.</p>

<p><strong>CONCLUSIONS: </strong>Infants with LOS had higher risk of death, but not NDI, compared with infants with LOCNC. Surviving infants with LOCNC had higher risk of NDI compared with unaffected infants. Improving outcomes for infants with LOCNC requires study of the underlying conditions and the potential impact of antibiotic exposure.</p>

DOI

10.1136/archdischild-2020-320664

Alternate Title

Arch Dis Child Fetal Neonatal Ed

PMID

33478957

Title

Loop Diuretics in Severe Bronchopulmonary Dysplasia: Cumulative Use and Associations with Mortality and Age at Discharge.

Year of Publication

2020

Date Published

2020 Nov 02

ISSN Number

1097-6833

Abstract

<p><strong>OBJECTIVES: </strong>To measure between-center variation in loop diuretic use for infants developing severe bronchopulmonary dysplasia (BPD) in United States children's hospitals, and to compare mortality and age at discharge among infants from low versus high use centers.</p>

<p><strong>STUDY DESIGN: </strong>We performed a retrospective cohort study of preterm infants &lt;32 weeks gestational age developing severe BPD. The primary outcome was cumulative loop diuretic use, defined as the proportion of days with exposure between admission and discharge. Infant characteristics associated with loop diuretic use at P &lt; .10 were included in multivariable models to adjust for center differences in case-mix. Hospitals were ranked from lowest to highest in adjusted use, and dichotomized into low or high use centers. We then compared mortality and postmenstrual age at discharge between groups through multivariable analyses.</p>

<p><strong>RESULTS: </strong>We identified 3252 subjects from 43 centers. Significant variation between centers remained despite adjustment for infant characteristics, with use present in an adjusted mean range of 7.3% to 49.4% of days, p &lt; 0.0001. Mortality (adjusted odds ratio 0.98 [95% CI 0.62, 1.53], p = 0.92) and postmenstrual age at discharge (marginal mean [95% CI]: 47.3 [46.8 , 47.9] versus 47.4 [46.9, 47.9] weeks, p = 0.96) were similar in low and high use groups, respectively.</p>

<p><strong>CONCLUSIONS: </strong>Marked variation in loop diuretic use for infants developing severe BPD exists between US children's hospital, without an observed difference on mortality or discharge age. Research to provide evidence-based guidance for this common exposure is needed.</p>

DOI

10.1016/j.jpeds.2020.10.073

Alternate Title

J Pediatr

PMID

33152371

Title

2010 perinatal GBS prevention guideline and resource utilization.

Year of Publication

2014

Number of Pages

196-203

Date Published

2014 Feb

ISSN Number

1098-4275

Abstract

<p><strong>OBJECTIVES: </strong>To quantify differences in early-onset sepsis (EOS) evaluations, evaluation-associated resource utilization, and EOS cases detected, when comparing time periods before and after the implementation of an EOS algorithm based on the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC) 2010 guidelines for prevention of perinatal Group B Streptococcus (GBS) disease.</p>

<p><strong>METHODS: </strong>Retrospective cohort study of infants born at ≥36 weeks' gestation from 2009 to 2012 in a single tertiary care center. One 12-month period during which EOS evaluations were based on the CDC 2002 guideline was compared with a second 12-month period during which EOS evaluations were based on the CDC 2010 guideline. A cost minimization analysis was performed to determine the EOS evaluation-associated costs and resources during each time period.</p>

<p><strong>RESULTS: </strong>During the study periods, among well-appearing infants ≥36 weeks' gestation, EOS evaluations for inadequate GBS prophylaxis decreased from 32/1000 to &lt;1/1000 live births; EOS evaluation-associated costs decreased by $6994 per 1000 live births; and EOS evaluation-associated work hours decreased by 29 per 1000 live births. We found no increase in EOS evaluations for other indications, total NICU admissions, frequency of infants evaluated for symptoms before hospital discharge, or incidence of EOS during the 2 study periods.</p>

<p><strong>CONCLUSIONS: </strong>Implementation of an EOS algorithm based on CDC 2010 GBS guidelines resulted in a 25% decrease in EOS evaluations performed among well-appearing infants ≥36 weeks' gestation, attributable to decreased evaluation of infants born in the setting of inadequate indicated GBS prophylaxis. This resulted in significant changes in EOS evaluation-associated resource expenditures.</p>

DOI

10.1542/peds.2013-1866

Alternate Title

Pediatrics

PMID

24446442

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