First name
Dmitry
Last name
Dukhovny

Title

Knowledge, Attitudes, and Perceptions about Antibiotic Stewardship Programs among Neonatology Trainees.

Year of Publication

2021

Date Published

2021 Jul 19

ISSN Number

1098-8785

Abstract

<p><strong>OBJECTIVE: </strong> Antibiotic stewardship should be an essential component of neonatology training as neonatal intensive care units (NICU) have unique stewardship needs. Our aim was to assess neonatology fellowship trainees' knowledge, attitudes, and perceptions about antibiotic stewardship to inform sustainable curriculum development.</p>

<p><strong>STUDY DESIGN: </strong> We distributed an electronic survey to neonatology fellows in the United States over 4 months (January-April 2018) via Accreditation Council for Graduate Medical Education program directors.</p>

<p><strong>RESULTS: </strong> Of 99 programs in the United States with an estimated 700 fellows, 159 (23%) fellows from 52 training programs (53%) responded to the survey and 139 (87%) provided analyzed responses. Majority of respondents were training in southern (59; 42%) and northeastern (43; 31%) regions and were equally spread across all 3 years of training. One hundred (72%) respondents reported an antibiotic stewardship program (ASP) in their institution. While 86% (120/139) were able to identify the components of an ASP, 59% (82/139) either did not or were unsure if they had received antibiotic stewardship training during fellowship.Furthermore, while answering case studies, 124 (89%) respondents identified the optimal antibiotic for methicillin susceptible (MSSA) infection and 69 (50%) respondents chose appropriate empiric antibiotics for neonatal meningitis. Notably, fellowship training year was not significantly related to the proportion of incorrect knowledge responses ( = 0.40). Most survey respondents (81; 59%) identified small group sessions as the most useful teaching format, while others chose audit and feedback of individual prescribing behavior (52; 38%) and didactic lectures (52; 38%). Finally, ninety-five (69%) respondents preferred trainee-led ASP interventions targeting focal areas such as antifungal and surgical prophylaxis.</p>

<p><strong>CONCLUSION: </strong> Antibiotic stewardship is a critical part of neonatology training. Neonatology fellows report variation in access to ASP during their training. Fellows prefer dedicated trainee-led interventions and stewardship curriculum taught within small group settings to promote targeted NICU ASP.</p>

<p><strong>KEY POINTS: </strong>· Most neonatology programs expose trainees to internal or external antibiotic stewardship programs.. · Over half of fellow trainees are unsure about receiving targeted antibiotic stewardship training.. · Most neonatology fellows prefer a trainee-led antibiotic stewardship intervention..</p>

DOI

10.1055/s-0041-1732418

Alternate Title

Am J Perinatol

PMID

34282573

Title

Clinical impact of neonatal hypoglycemia screening in the well-baby care.

Year of Publication

2020

Date Published

2020 Mar 09

ISSN Number

1476-5543

Abstract

<p><strong>OBJECTIVES: </strong>To determine the proportion of well-appearing newborns screened for hypoglycemia, yield of specific screening criteria, and impact of screening on breastfeeding.</p>

<p><strong>STUDY DESIGN: </strong>The retrospective study of well-appearing at-risk infants born ≥36 weeks' gestation with blood glucose (BG) measurements obtained ≤72 h of age.</p>

<p><strong>RESULTS: </strong>Of 10,533 eligible well newborns, 48.7% were screened for hypoglycemia. Among tested infants, BG &lt; 50 mg/dL occurred in 43% and 4.6% required intensive care for hypoglycemia. BG &lt; 50 mg/dL was associated with lower rates of exclusive breastfeeding (22% vs 65%, p &lt; 0.001). Infants screened due to late-preterm birth were most frequently identified as hypoglycemic. The fewest abnormal values occurred among appropriate weight, late-term infants of nondiabetic mothers.</p>

<p><strong>CONCLUSION: </strong>Hypoglycemia risk criteria result in screening a large proportion of otherwise well newborns and negatively impact rates of exclusive breastfeeding. The risks and benefits of hypoglycemia screening recommendations should be urgently addressed.</p>

DOI

10.1038/s41372-020-0641-1

Alternate Title

J Perinatol

PMID

32152490

Title

A Collaborative Multicenter QI Initiative To Improve Antibiotic Stewardship in Newborns.

Year of Publication

2019

Date Published

2019 Nov 01

ISSN Number

1098-4275

Abstract

<p><strong>OBJECTIVES: </strong>To determine if NICU teams participating in a multicenter quality improvement (QI) collaborative achieve increased compliance with the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC) core elements for antibiotic stewardship and demonstrate reductions in antibiotic use (AU) among newborns.</p>

<p><strong>METHODS: </strong>From January 2016 to December 2017, multidisciplinary teams from 146 NICUs participated in Choosing Antibiotics Wisely, an Internet-based national QI collaborative conducted by the Vermont Oxford Network consisting of interactive Web sessions, a series of 4 point-prevalence audits, and expert coaching designed to help teams test and implement the CDC core elements of antibiotic stewardship. The audits assessed unit-level adherence to the CDC core elements and collected patient-level data about AU. The AU rate was defined as the percentage of infants in the NICU receiving 1 or more antibiotics on the day of the audit.</p>

<p><strong>RESULTS: </strong>The percentage of NICUs implementing the CDC core elements increased in each of the 7 domains (leadership: 15.4%-68.8%; accountability: 54.5%-95%; drug expertise: 61.5%-85.1%; actions: 21.7%-72.3%; tracking: 14.7%-78%; reporting: 6.3%-17.7%; education: 32.9%-87.2%; &lt; .005 for all measures). The median AU rate decreased from 16.7% to 12.1% ( for trend &lt; .0013), a 34% relative risk reduction.</p>

<p><strong>CONCLUSIONS: </strong>NICU teams participating in this QI collaborative increased adherence to the CDC core elements of antibiotic stewardship and achieved significant reductions in AU.</p>

DOI

10.1542/peds.2019-0589

Alternate Title

Pediatrics

PMID

31676682

Title

2010 perinatal GBS prevention guideline and resource utilization.

Year of Publication

2014

Number of Pages

196-203

Date Published

2014 Feb

ISSN Number

1098-4275

Abstract

<p><strong>OBJECTIVES: </strong>To quantify differences in early-onset sepsis (EOS) evaluations, evaluation-associated resource utilization, and EOS cases detected, when comparing time periods before and after the implementation of an EOS algorithm based on the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC) 2010 guidelines for prevention of perinatal Group B Streptococcus (GBS) disease.</p>

<p><strong>METHODS: </strong>Retrospective cohort study of infants born at ≥36 weeks' gestation from 2009 to 2012 in a single tertiary care center. One 12-month period during which EOS evaluations were based on the CDC 2002 guideline was compared with a second 12-month period during which EOS evaluations were based on the CDC 2010 guideline. A cost minimization analysis was performed to determine the EOS evaluation-associated costs and resources during each time period.</p>

<p><strong>RESULTS: </strong>During the study periods, among well-appearing infants ≥36 weeks' gestation, EOS evaluations for inadequate GBS prophylaxis decreased from 32/1000 to &lt;1/1000 live births; EOS evaluation-associated costs decreased by $6994 per 1000 live births; and EOS evaluation-associated work hours decreased by 29 per 1000 live births. We found no increase in EOS evaluations for other indications, total NICU admissions, frequency of infants evaluated for symptoms before hospital discharge, or incidence of EOS during the 2 study periods.</p>

<p><strong>CONCLUSIONS: </strong>Implementation of an EOS algorithm based on CDC 2010 GBS guidelines resulted in a 25% decrease in EOS evaluations performed among well-appearing infants ≥36 weeks' gestation, attributable to decreased evaluation of infants born in the setting of inadequate indicated GBS prophylaxis. This resulted in significant changes in EOS evaluation-associated resource expenditures.</p>

DOI

10.1542/peds.2013-1866

Alternate Title

Pediatrics

PMID

24446442

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