First name
Justin
Middle name
Y
Last name
Lo

Title

Postpartum Length of Stay and Hospital Readmission Before and During the Coronavirus Disease 2019 (COVID-19) Pandemic.

Year of Publication

2022

Date Published

2022 Feb 03

ISSN Number

1873-233X

Abstract

<p><strong>OBJECTIVE: </strong>To compare postpartum hospitalization length of stay (LOS) and hospital readmission among obstetric patients before (March 2017-February 2020; prepandemic) and during the coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) pandemic (March 2020-February 2021).</p>

<p><strong>METHODS: </strong>We conducted a retrospective cohort study, using Epic Systems' Cosmos research platform, of obstetric patients who delivered between March 1, 2017, and February 28, 2021, at 20-44 weeks of gestation and were discharged within 7 days of delivery. The primary outcome was short postpartum hospitalization LOS (less than two midnights for vaginal births and less than three midnights for cesarean births) and secondary outcome was hospital readmission within 6 weeks of postpartum hospitalization discharge. Analyses compared outcomes before and during the pandemic using standardized differences and Bayesian logistic mixed-effects models, among all births and stratified by mode of delivery.</p>

<p><strong>RESULTS: </strong>Of the 994,268 obstetric patients in the study cohort, 742,113 (74.6%) delivered prepandemic and 252,155 (25.4%) delivered during the COVID-19 pandemic. During the COVID-19 pandemic, the percentage of short postpartum hospitalizations increased among all births (28.7-44.5%), vaginal births (25.4-39.5%), and cesarean births (35.3-55.1%), which was consistent with the adjusted analysis (all births: adjusted odds ratio [aOR] 2.35, 99% credible interval 2.32-2.39; vaginal births: aOR 2.14, 99% credible interval 2.11-2.18; cesarean births aOR 2.90, 99% credible interval 2.83-2.98). Although short postpartum hospitalizations were more common during the COVID-19 pandemic, there was no change in readmission in the unadjusted (1.4% vs 1.6%, standardized difference=0.009) or adjusted (aOR 1.02, 99% credible interval 0.97-1.08) analyses for all births or when stratified by mode of delivery.</p>

<p><strong>CONCLUSION: </strong>Short postpartum hospitalization LOS was significantly more common during the COVID-19 pandemic for obstetric patients with no change in hospital readmissions within 6 weeks of postpartum hospitalization discharge. The COVID-19 pandemic created a natural experiment, suggesting shorter postpartum hospitalization may be reasonable for patients who are self-identified or health care professional-identified as appropriate for discharge.</p>

DOI

10.1097/AOG.0000000000004687

Alternate Title

Obstet Gynecol

PMID

35115443

Title

Birth Hospital Length of Stay and Rehospitalization During COVID-19.

Year of Publication

2021

Date Published

2021 Dec 10

ISSN Number

1098-4275

Abstract

OBJECTIVES: To determine if birth hospitalization length of stay (LOS) and infant rehospitalization changed during the coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) era among healthy, term infants.

METHODS: Retrospective cohort study using Epic's Cosmos data from 35 health systems of term infants discharged ≤5 days of birth. Short birth hospitalization LOS (vaginal birth <2 midnights; cesarean birth <3 midnights) and, secondarily, infant rehospitalization ≤7 days after birth hospitalization discharge were compared between the COVID-19 (March 1 to August 31, 2020) and prepandemic eras (March 1 to August 31, 2017, 2018, 2019). Mixed-effects models were used to estimate adjusted odds ratios (aORs) comparing the eras.

RESULTS: Among 202 385 infants (57 110 from the COVID-19 era), short birth hospitalization LOS increased from 28.5% to 43.0% for all births (vaginal: 25.6% to 39.3%, cesarean: 40.1% to 61.0%) during the pandemic and persisted after multivariable adjustment (all: aOR 2.30, 95% confidence interval [CI] 2.25-2.36; vaginal: aOR 2.12, 95% CI 2.06-2.18; cesarean: aOR 3.01, 95% CI 2.87-3.15). Despite shorter LOS, infant rehospitalizations decreased slightly during the pandemic (1.2% to 1.1%); results were similar in adjusted analysis (all: aOR 0.83, 95% CI 0.76-0.92; vaginal: aOR 0.82, 95% CI 0.74-0.91; cesarean: aOR 0.87, 95% CI 0.69-1.10). There was no change in the proportion of rehospitalization diagnoses between eras.

CONCLUSIONS: Short infant LOS was 51% more common in the COVID-19 era, yet infant rehospitalization within a week did not increase. This natural experiment suggests shorter birth hospitalization LOS among family- and clinician-selected, healthy term infants may be safe with respect to infant rehospitalization, although examination of additional outcomes is needed.

DOI

10.1542/peds.2021-053498

Alternate Title

Pediatrics

PMID

34889449

Title

Coronavirus Disease 2019 (COVID-19) Pandemic and Pregnancy Outcomes in a U.S. Population.

Year of Publication

2021

Date Published

2021 Aug 09

ISSN Number

1873-233X

Abstract

<p><strong>OBJECTIVE: </strong>To examine whether the coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) pandemic altered risk of adverse pregnancy-related outcomes and whether there were differences by severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) infection status among pregnant women.</p>

<p><strong>METHODS: </strong>In this retrospective cohort study using Epic's Cosmos research platform, women who delivered during the pandemic (March-December 2020) were compared with those who delivered prepandemic (matched months 2017-2019). Within the pandemic epoch, those who tested positive for SARS-CoV-2 infection were compared with those with negative test results or no SARS-CoV-2 diagnosis. Comparisons were performed using standardized differences, with a value greater than 0.1 indicating meaningful differences between groups.</p>

<p><strong>RESULTS: </strong>Among 838,489 women (225,225 who delivered during the pandemic), baseline characteristics were similar between epochs. There were no significant differences in adverse pregnancy outcomes between epochs (standardized difference&lt;0.10). In the pandemic epoch, 108,067 (48.0%) women had SARS-CoV-2 testing available; of those, 7,432 (6.9%) had positive test results. Compared with women classified as negative for SARS-CoV-2 infection, those who tested positive for SARS-CoV-2 infection were less likely to be non-Hispanic White or Asian or to reside in the Midwest and more likely to be Hispanic, have public insurance, be obese, and reside in the South or in high social vulnerability ZIP codes. There were no significant differences in the frequency of preterm birth (8.5% vs 7.6%, standardized difference=0.032), stillbirth (0.4% vs 0.4%, standardized difference=-0.002), small for gestational age (6.4% vs 6.5%, standardized difference=-0.002), large for gestational age (7.7% vs 7.7%, standardized difference=-0.001), hypertensive disorders of pregnancy (16.3% vs 15.8%, standardized difference=0.014), placental abruption (0.5% vs 0.4%, standardized difference=0.007), cesarean birth (31.2% vs 29.4%, standardized difference=0.039), or postpartum hemorrhage (3.4% vs 3.1%, standardized difference=0.019) between those who tested positive for SARS-CoV-2 infection and those classified as testing negative.</p>

<p><strong>CONCLUSION: </strong>In a geographically diverse U.S. cohort, the frequency of adverse pregnancy-related outcomes did not differ between those delivering before compared with during the pandemic, nor between those classified as positive compared with negative for SARS-CoV-2 infection during pregnancy.</p>

DOI

10.1097/AOG.0000000000004547

Alternate Title

Obstet Gynecol

PMID

34433180

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