First name
Jennifer
Last name
Faerber

Title

Impact of Device Miniaturization on Insertable Cardiac Monitor Use in the Pediatric Population: An Analysis of the MarketScan Commercial and Medicaid Databases.

Year of Publication

2022

Number of Pages

e024112

Date Published

08/2022

ISSN Number

2047-9980

Abstract

Background Insertable cardiac monitors (ICMs) are effective in the detection of paroxysmal arrhythmias. In 2014, the first miniaturized ICM was introduced with a less invasive implant technique. The impact of this technology on ICM use in pediatric patients has not been evaluated. We hypothesized an increase in annual pediatric ICM implants starting in 2014 attributable to device miniaturization. Methods and Results A retrospective observational study was conducted using administrative claims from MarketScan Medicaid and commercial insurance claims databases. Use of ICM between January 2013 and December 2018 was measured (normalized to the total enrolled population ≤18 years) and compared with balancing measures (Holter ambulatory monitors, cardiac event monitors, encounters with syncope diagnosis, implantation of implantable cardioverter-defibrillator/pacemaker). Secondary analyses included evaluations of subsequent interventions and complications. The study cohort included 33 532 185 individual subjects, of which 769 (0.002%) underwent ICM implantation. Subjects who underwent ICM implantation were 52% male sex, with a median age of 16 years (interquartile range, 10-17 years). A history of syncope was present in 71%, palpitations in 43%, and congenital heart disease in 28%. Following release of the miniaturized ICM, use of ICMs increased from 5 procedures per million enrollees in 2013 to 11 per million between 2015 and 2018 (<0.001), while balancing measures remained static. Of 394 subjects with ≥1 year of follow-up after implantation, interventions included catheter ablation in 24 (6%), pacemaker implantation in 15 (4%), and implantable cardioverter-defibrillator implantation in 7 (2%). Conclusions Introduction of the miniaturized ICM was followed by a rapid increase in pediatric use. The effects on outcomes and value deserve further attention.

DOI

10.1161/JAHA.121.024112

Alternate Title

J Am Heart Assoc

PMID

35929446

Title

Impact of Device Miniaturization on Insertable Cardiac Monitor Use in the Pediatric Population: An Analysis of the MarketScan Commercial and Medicaid Databases.

Year of Publication

2022

Number of Pages

e024112

Date Published

08/2022

ISSN Number

2047-9980

Abstract

Background Insertable cardiac monitors (ICMs) are effective in the detection of paroxysmal arrhythmias. In 2014, the first miniaturized ICM was introduced with a less invasive implant technique. The impact of this technology on ICM use in pediatric patients has not been evaluated. We hypothesized an increase in annual pediatric ICM implants starting in 2014 attributable to device miniaturization. Methods and Results A retrospective observational study was conducted using administrative claims from MarketScan Medicaid and commercial insurance claims databases. Use of ICM between January 2013 and December 2018 was measured (normalized to the total enrolled population ≤18 years) and compared with balancing measures (Holter ambulatory monitors, cardiac event monitors, encounters with syncope diagnosis, implantation of implantable cardioverter-defibrillator/pacemaker). Secondary analyses included evaluations of subsequent interventions and complications. The study cohort included 33 532 185 individual subjects, of which 769 (0.002%) underwent ICM implantation. Subjects who underwent ICM implantation were 52% male sex, with a median age of 16 years (interquartile range, 10-17 years). A history of syncope was present in 71%, palpitations in 43%, and congenital heart disease in 28%. Following release of the miniaturized ICM, use of ICMs increased from 5 procedures per million enrollees in 2013 to 11 per million between 2015 and 2018 (<0.001), while balancing measures remained static. Of 394 subjects with ≥1 year of follow-up after implantation, interventions included catheter ablation in 24 (6%), pacemaker implantation in 15 (4%), and implantable cardioverter-defibrillator implantation in 7 (2%). Conclusions Introduction of the miniaturized ICM was followed by a rapid increase in pediatric use. The effects on outcomes and value deserve further attention.

DOI

10.1161/JAHA.121.024112

Alternate Title

J Am Heart Assoc

PMID

35929446

Title

Relationship Between Serum Brain-Type Natriuretic Peptide and Biomarkers of Growth in Infants With Shunt-Dependent Single Cardiac Ventricle.

Year of Publication

2022

Date Published

2022 Mar 11

ISSN Number

1879-1913

Abstract

<p>For infants with shunt-dependent or ductal-dependent single ventricle heart disease, poor growth is common and associated with morbidity and impaired neurodevelopmental outcomes. Although attention has focused on nutrition to promote weight gain, little is known about the relation between heart failure and growth factors. A prospective observational pilot study was performed to assess the relation between heart failure, assessed by brain natriuretic peptide (BNP), and growth factors (insulin-like growth factor 1 [IGF-1] and insulin-like growth factor-binding protein 3) at 3 visits: (1) before discharge from neonatal intervention with the establishment of stable pulmonary blood flow, (2) immediately before superior cavopulmonary connection, and (3) before discharge after superior cavopulmonary connection operation. The relation between BNP and growth factors was analyzed using Spearman pairwise correlations at each visit and modeled over time with a linear mixed-effects model. Correlations were considered worthy of further exploration using a p &lt;0.10, given the exploratory nature of the study. The study included 38 infants (66% male, 68% hypoplastic left heart syndrome). Median BNP was elevated at visit 1 and decreased over time (287&nbsp;pg/dl [interquartile range 147 to 794], 85&nbsp;pg/dl [52 to 183], and 90&nbsp;pg/dl [70 to 138]). Median IGF-1 Z&nbsp;score was &lt;0 at each visit but increased over time (-0.9 [interquartile range -1.1 to 0.1], -0.7 [-1.2 to 0.1], and -0.5 [-1.2 to 0]). Inverse correlations were found between BNP and IGF-1 at visit 1 (r&nbsp;=&nbsp;-0.40, p&nbsp;=&nbsp;0.097), BNP and IGF-1 and insulin-like growth factor-binding protein 3 at visit 2 (r&nbsp;=&nbsp;-0.33, p&nbsp;=&nbsp;0.080 and r&nbsp;=&nbsp;-0.33, p&nbsp;=&nbsp;0.085, respectively) and BNP and IGF-1 Z&nbsp;score at visit 3 (r&nbsp;=&nbsp;-0.42, p&nbsp;=&nbsp;0.049). Significant relations were likewise found between the change in BNP and the change in IGF-1 between visits 1 and 3 (p&nbsp;=&nbsp;0.046) and between visits 2 and 3 (p&nbsp;=&nbsp;0.048). In conclusion, this pilot study demonstrates an inverse correlation between BNP and growth factors, suggesting that the heart failure state associated with this physiology may play a mechanistic role in impaired growth.</p>

DOI

10.1016/j.amjcard.2022.01.052

Alternate Title

Am J Cardiol

PMID

35287945

Title

Depression and Anxiety Symptoms During and After Pediatric Asthma Hospitalization.

Year of Publication

2021

Date Published

2021 Oct 20

ISSN Number

2154-1671

Abstract

<p><strong>OBJECTIVES: </strong>Depression and anxiety are common in children with asthma, and asthma hospitalization is an underused opportunity to identify mental health concerns. We assessed depression and anxiety symptoms during asthma hospitalization and 1 to 2 months post discharge.</p>

<p><strong>METHODS: </strong>This prospective cohort study included children aged 7 to 17 years who were hospitalized for asthma exacerbation. Participants completed the self-report PROMIS (Patient-Reported Outcomes Measurement Information System) depression and anxiety symptom scales (T score mean = 50, SD = 10) during hospitalization and 1 to 2 months after discharge. Higher scores indicate more symptoms and/or greater severity. We compared patients' scores during hospitalization and at follow-up using paired tests and examined individual patients' depression and anxiety symptom trajectories using a Sankey diagram.</p>

<p><strong>RESULTS: </strong>Among 96 participants who completed the study, 53% had elevated symptoms of depression, anxiety, or both either during hospitalization or after discharge. During hospitalization, 38% had elevated depression symptoms and 45% had elevated anxiety symptoms. At postdischarge follow-up, 18% had elevated depression symptoms and 20% had elevated anxiety symptoms. We observed all possible symptom trajectories: symptoms during hospitalization that persisted (especially if both depression and anxiety symptoms were present), symptoms that resolved, and symptoms that were present at follow-up only.</p>

<p><strong>CONCLUSIONS: </strong>Just more than half of youth hospitalized for asthma exacerbation experienced depression and/or anxiety symptoms during hospitalization or at follow-up. Patients who had both depression and anxiety symptoms during hospitalization were the most likely to have persistent symptoms at follow-up. Screening at both time points may be useful to identify mental health symptoms.</p>

DOI

10.1542/hpeds.2020-000950

Alternate Title

Hosp Pediatr

PMID

34670757

Title

Recent Trends in Marijuana-Related Hospital Encounters in Young Children.

Year of Publication

2021

Date Published

2021 Jul 26

ISSN Number

1876-2867

Abstract

<p><strong>OBJECTIVES: </strong>Multiple states have passed legislation permitting marijuana use. The impact of legalization on trends in hospital encounters for marijuana exposures in young children across states remains unknown. We aimed to describe trends in marijuana-related hospital encounters over time in children &lt;6 years and assess the association of state-level marijuana legislation with the rate of marijuana-related hospitalizations.</p>

<p><strong>METHODS: </strong>We identified inpatient, emergency department and observation encounters for children &lt;6 years with marijuana exposures (defined by International Classification of Diseases diagnosis codes) unique on the patient-year level at 52 children's hospitals in the Pediatric Health Information System database from 01/01/2004-12/31/2018. Trends in encounters across the study period were evaluated using negative binomial regression with outcome of marijuana-related hospital encounters and year as the predictor variable accounting for clustering by hospital. We then estimated a negative binomial regression difference-in-differences model to examine the association between the main outcome and state recreational and medical marijuana legalization.</p>

<p><strong>RESULTS: </strong>Of the 1296 included unique patient-year encounters, 50% were female with mean age 2.1 years (SD=1.4). Fifty percent were inpatient (n=645) and 15% required intensive care with 4% requiring mechanical ventilation. There was a 13.3-fold increase in exposures in 2018 compared to 2004 (p &lt;0.001). We did not find an effect of state legalization status for recreational (p=0.24) or medical (p=0.30) marijuana.</p>

<p><strong>CONCLUSIONS: </strong>The observed dramatic increase in marijuana-related hospital encounters highlights the need for prevention strategies aimed at reducing unintentional marijuana exposures in young children, even in states without legislation permitting marijuana use.</p>

DOI

10.1016/j.acap.2021.07.018

Alternate Title

Acad Pediatr

PMID

34325061

Title

Racial/ethnic disparities in female sexual health from adolescence to young adulthood: how adolescent characteristics matter?

Year of Publication

2020

Date Published

2020 Nov 20

ISSN Number

1873-4332

Abstract

<p><strong>STUDY OBJECTIVE: </strong>To describe sexual initiation pattern in female adolescents and examine its association with adolescent characteristics and racial disparities in adverse sexual health across adolescence into early adulthood.</p>

<p><strong>DESIGN: </strong>A prospective, longitudinal, observational study from adolescence to adulthood.</p>

<p><strong>SETTING: </strong>Nationally representative, the National Longitudinal Study of Adolescent to Adult Health data, ranged 24-32 years old at final assessment.</p>

<p><strong>PARTICIPANTS: </strong>43,577 US females in 1994-2008.</p>

<p><strong>INTERVENTIONS AND MAIN OUTCOME MEASURES: </strong>Adolescent sex related characteristics in individual-family-school peer level were accessed, and multiple sex partners, STIs/HIV, and inter-partner violence (IPV) were longitudinally tracked. The sexual initiation pattern and its longitudinal association with sexual health were analyzed using latent class analysis and Mixed-effects Poisson regression models.</p>

<p><strong>RESULTS: </strong>The sexual initiation patterns were determined as normative (65.9%), late (24.8%) and early but unempowered (9.3%). The highest rate of early-unempowered group was shown in Hispanics (14.4%); they were more likely to be depressed, unsatisfied with their bodies and on welfare and have less educated/permissive parents to their sexual initiation than others. The late group had a higher BMI and more satisfaction with their bodies. The highest number of STIs/HIV and IPV victimization was shown in non-Hispanic blacks (NHBs) and Hispanics, respectively. However, NHB females' higher STIs/HIV was shown in late/normative groups, not in early-unempowered group. Among Hispanic females, adolescent sexual initiation patterns were not directly associated with their frequent IPV victimization.</p>

<p><strong>CONCLUSIONS: </strong>NHB females' higher STI/HIV in late/normative groups and Hispanic females' frequent IPV victimization regardless of their sexual initiation patterns may indicate that racial/ethnic disparities in female sexual health was not directly determined by adolescent risk behaviors.</p>

DOI

10.1016/j.jpag.2020.11.005

Alternate Title

J Pediatr Adolesc Gynecol

PMID

33227423

Title

Pediatrician Delivered Smoking Cessation Messages for Parents: A Latent Class Approach to Behavioral Phenotyping.

Year of Publication

2020

Date Published

2020 Jul 27

ISSN Number

1876-2867

Abstract

<p><strong>OBJECTIVE: </strong>Message framing can be leveraged to motivate adult smokers to quit, but its value for parents in pediatric settings is unknown. Understanding parents' preferences for smoking cessation messages may help clinicians tailor interventions to increase quitting.</p>

<p><strong>METHODS: </strong>We conducted a discrete choice experiment in which parent smokers of pediatric patients rated the relative importance of 26 messages designed to increase smoking cessation treatment. Messages varied on who the message featured (child, parent, family), whether the message was gain- or loss-framed (emphasizing benefits of engaging or costs of failing to engage in treatment), and the specific outcome included (e.g. general health, cancer, respiratory illnesses, financial impact). Participants included 180 parent smokers at 4 pediatric primary care sites. We used latent class analysis of message ratings to identify groups of parents with similar preferences. Multinomial logistic regression described child and parent characteristics associated with group membership.</p>

<p><strong>RESULTS: </strong>We identified 3 groups of parents with similar preferences for messages: Group 1 prioritized the impact of smoking on the child (n=92, 51%), Group 2 favored gain-framed messages (n=63, 35%), and Group 3 preferred messages emphasizing the financial impact of smoking (n=25, 14%). Parents in Group 2 were more likely to have limited health literacy and have a child over age 6 and with asthma, compared to Group 1.</p>

<p><strong>CONCLUSIONS: </strong>We identified 3 groups of parent smokers with different message preferences. This work may inform testing of tailored smoking cessation messages to different parent groups, a form of behavioral phenotyping supporting motivational precision medicine.</p>

DOI

10.1016/j.acap.2020.07.018

Alternate Title

Acad Pediatr

PMID

32730914

Title

Parent Preferences for Pediatric Clinician Messaging to Promote Smoking Cessation Treatment.

Year of Publication

2020

Date Published

2020 Jun 22

ISSN Number

1098-4275

Abstract

<p><strong>BACKGROUND AND OBJECTIVES: </strong>Insights from behavioral economics suggests that the effectiveness of health messages depends on how a message is framed. Parent preferences for smoking cessation messaging has not been studied in pediatrics, warranting further exploration to maximize benefit. We sought to assess parents' perceptions regarding the relative importance of distinct message framings to promote their smoking cessation.</p>

<p><strong>METHODS: </strong>We conducted a cross-sectional discrete choice experiment in which parent smokers rated the relative importance of 26 messages designed to encourage them to begin cessation treatment. Messages varied on who was featured (child, parent, or family), whether the message was gain or loss framed, and what outcome was included (general health, cancer, respiratory illnesses, child becoming a smoker, or financial impact). The participants were 180 parent smokers attending primary care visits with their children at 4 diverse pediatric sites. The main outcome was the importance of smoking cessation messages based on who was featured, gain or loss framing, and the outcome emphasized.</p>

<p><strong>RESULTS: </strong>Parent smokers highly prioritized cessation messages emphasizing the impact of quitting smoking on their child versus parent or family. Messages focusing on respiratory illness, cancer, or general health outcomes consistently ranked highest, whereas messages focused on the financial benefits of quitting ranked lowest. Gain versus loss framing did not meaningfully influence rankings.</p>

<p><strong>CONCLUSIONS: </strong>Parent smokers identified smoking cessation messages that emphasized the impact on their child, with outcomes focused on respiratory health, cancer, or general health, as most important. The clinical impact of these messages should be tested in future research.</p>

DOI

10.1542/peds.2019-3901

Alternate Title

Pediatrics

PMID

32571991

Title

A Comparison of Bidirectional Glenn vs. Hemi-Fontan Procedure: An Analysis of the Single Ventricle Reconstruction Trial Public Use Dataset.

Year of Publication

2020

Date Published

2020 May 29

ISSN Number

1432-1971

Abstract

<p>Patients with single ventricle (SV) heart defects have two primary surgical options for superior cavopulmonary connection (SCPC): bidirectional Glenn (BDG) and hemi-Fontan (HF). Outcomes based on type of SCPC have not been assessed in a multi-center cohort. This retrospective cohort study uses the Single Ventricle Reconstruction (SVR) Trial public use dataset. Infants who survived to SCPC were evaluated through 1&nbsp;year of age, based on type of SCPC. The primary outcome was transplant-free survival at 1&nbsp;year. The cohort included 343 patients undergoing SCPC across 15 centers in North America; 250 (73%) underwent the BDG. There was no difference between the groups in pre-SCPC clinical characteristics. Cardiopulmonary bypass times were longer [99&nbsp;min (IQR 76, 126) vs 81&nbsp;min (IQR 59, 116), p &lt; 0.001] and use of deep hypothermic circulatory arrest (DHCA) more prevalent (51% vs 19%, p &lt; 0.001) with HF. Patients who underwent HF had a higher likelihood of experiencing more than one post-operative complication (54% vs 41%, p = 0.05). There were no other differences including the rate of post-operative interventional cardiac catheterizations, length of stay, or survival at discharge, and there was no difference in transplant-free survival out to 1&nbsp;year of age. Mortality after SCPC is low and there is no difference in mortality at 1&nbsp;year of age based on type of SCPC. Differences in support time and post-operative complications support the preferential use of the BDG, but additional longitudinal follow-up is necessary to understand whether these differences have implications for long-term outcomes.</p>

DOI

10.1007/s00246-020-02371-6

Alternate Title

Pediatr Cardiol

PMID

32472151

Title

Interprofessional Team Member Communication Patterns, Teamwork, and Collaboration in Pre-Family Meeting Huddles in a Pediatric Cardiac Intensive Care Unit.

Year of Publication

2019

Date Published

2019 Apr 17

ISSN Number

1873-6513

Abstract

<p><strong>CONTEXT: </strong>Interprofessional teams often develop a care plan prior to engaging in a family meeting in the pediatric cardiac intensive care unit (CICU)-a process that can affect the course of the family meeting and alter team dynamics, but that has not been studied.</p>

<p><strong>OBJECTIVES: </strong>To characterize the types of interactions that interprofessional team members have in pre-family meetings huddles in the pediatric CICU by 1) evaluating the amount of time each team member speaks; 2) assessing team communication and teamwork using standardized instruments; and 3) measuring team members' perceptions of collaboration and satisfaction with decision-making.</p>

<p><strong>METHODS: </strong>We conducted a prospective observational study in a pediatric CICU. Subjects were members of the interprofessional team attending preparation meetings prior to care meetings with families of patients admitted to the CICU for longer than two weeks. We quantitatively coded the amount each team member spoke. We assessed team performance of communication and teamwork using the PACT-Novice tool, and we measured perception of collaboration and satisfaction with decision-making using the CSACD questionnaire.</p>

<p><strong>RESULTS: </strong>Physicians spoke for an average of 83.9% of each meeting's duration (SD 7.5%); non-physicians averaged 9.9% (SD 5.2%). Teamwork behaviors were present and adequately performed as judged by trained observers. Significant differences in physician and non-physician perceptions of collaboration were found in 3 out of 10 observed meetings.</p>

<p><strong>CONCLUSIONS: </strong>Interprofessional team members' interactions in team meetings provide important information about team dynamics, revealing potential opportunities for improved collaboration and communication in team meetings and subsequent family meetings.</p>

DOI

10.1016/j.jpainsymman.2019.04.009

Alternate Title

J Pain Symptom Manage

PMID

31004773

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