First name
Edward
Middle name
M
Last name
Behrens

Title

Proteomic Profiling of MIS-C Patients Reveals Heterogeneity Relating to Interferon Gamma Dysregulation and Vascular Endothelial Dysfunction.

Year of Publication

2021

Date Published

2021 Apr 20

Abstract

<p>Multi-system Inflammatory Syndrome in Children (MIS-C) is a major complication of the Severe Acute Respiratory Syndrome Coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) pandemic in pediatric patients. Weeks after an often mild or asymptomatic initial infection with SARS-CoV-2 children may present with a severe shock-like picture and marked inflammation. Children with MIS-C present with varying degrees of cardiovascular and hyperinflammatory symptoms. We performed a comprehensive analysis of the plasma proteome of more than 1400 proteins in children with SARS-CoV-2. We hypothesized that the proteome would reflect heterogeneity in hyperinflammation and vascular injury, and further identify pathogenic mediators of disease. Protein signatures demonstrated overlap between MIS-C, and the inflammatory syndromes macrophage activation syndrome (MAS) and thrombotic microangiopathy (TMA). We demonstrate that PLA2G2A is a key marker of MIS-C that associates with TMA. We found that IFNγ responses are dysregulated in MIS-C patients, and that IFNγ levels delineate clinical heterogeneity.</p>

DOI

10.1101/2021.04.13.21255439

Alternate Title

medRxiv

PMID

33907759

Title

Evidence of thrombotic microangiopathy in children with SARS-CoV-2 across the spectrum of clinical presentations.

Year of Publication

2020

Number of Pages

6051-6063

Date Published

2020 12 08

ISSN Number

2473-9537

Abstract

<p>Most children with severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) infection have mild or minimal disease, with a small proportion developing severe disease or multisystem inflammatory syndrome in children (MIS-C). Complement-mediated thrombotic microangiopathy (TMA) has been associated with SARS-CoV-2 infection in adults but has not been studied in the pediatric population. We hypothesized that complement activation plays an important role in SARS-CoV-2 infection in children and sought to understand if TMA was present in these patients. We enrolled 50 hospitalized pediatric patients with acute SARS-CoV-2 infection (n = 21, minimal coronavirus disease 2019 [COVID-19]; n = 11, severe COVID-19) or MIS-C (n = 18). As a biomarker of complement activation and TMA, soluble C5b9 (sC5b9, normal 247 ng/mL) was measured in plasma, and elevations were found in patients with minimal disease (median, 392 ng/mL; interquartile range [IQR], 244-622 ng/mL), severe disease (median, 646 ng/mL; IQR, 203-728 ng/mL), and MIS-C (median, 630 ng/mL; IQR, 359-932 ng/mL) compared with 26 healthy control subjects (median, 57 ng/mL; IQR, 9-163 ng/mL; P &lt; .001). Higher sC5b9 levels were associated with higher serum creatinine (P = .01) but not age. Of the 19 patients for whom complete clinical criteria were available, 17 (89%) met criteria for TMA. A high proportion of tested children with SARS-CoV-2 infection had evidence of complement activation and met clinical and diagnostic criteria for TMA. Future studies are needed to determine if hospitalized children with SARS-CoV-2 should be screened for TMA, if TMA-directed management is helpful, and if there are any short- or long-term clinical consequences of complement activation and endothelial damage in children with COVID-19 or MIS-C.</p>

DOI

10.1182/bloodadvances.2020003471

Alternate Title

Blood Adv

PMID

33290544

Title

Distinguishing Multisystem Inflammatory Syndrome in Children From Kawasaki Disease and Benign Inflammatory Illnesses in the SARS-CoV-2 Pandemic.

Year of Publication

2020

Date Published

2020 Sep 22

ISSN Number

1535-1815

Abstract

<p><strong>OBJECTIVE: </strong>The aim of the study was to compare presenting clinical and laboratory features among children meeting the surveillance definition for multisystem inflammatory syndrome in children (MIS-C) across a range of illness severities.</p>

<p><strong>METHODS: </strong>This is a retrospective single-center study of patients younger than 21 years presenting between March 1 and May 15, 2020. Included patients met the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention criteria for MIS-C (inflammation, fever, involvement of 2 organ systems, lack of alternative diagnoses). We defined 3 subgroups by clinical outcomes: (1) critical illness requiring intensive care interventions; (2) patients meeting Kawasaki disease (KD) criteria but not requiring critical care; and (3) mild illness not meeting either criteria. A comparator cohort included patients with KD at our institution during the same time frame in 2019.</p>

<p><strong>RESULTS: </strong>Thirty-three patients were included (5, critical; 8, 2020 KD; 20, mild). The median age for the critical group was 10.9 years (2.7 for 2020 KD; 6.0 for mild, P = 0.033). The critical group had lower median absolute lymphocyte count (850 vs 3005 vs 2940/uL, P = 0.005), platelets (150 vs 361 vs 252 k/uL, P = 0.005), and sodium (129 vs 136 vs 136 mmol/L, P = 0.002), and higher creatinine (0.7 vs 0.2 vs 0.3 mg/dL, P = 0.002). In the critical group, 60% required vasoactive medications, and 40% required mechanical ventilation. Clinical and laboratories features were similar between the 2020 and 2019 KD groups.</p>

<p><strong>CONCLUSIONS: </strong>We describe 3 groups with inflammatory syndromes during the SARS-CoV-2 pandemic. The initial profile of lymphopenia, thrombocytopenia, hyponatremia, and abnormal creatinine may help distinguish critically ill MIS-C patients from classic/atypical KD or more benign acute inflammation.</p>

DOI

10.1097/PEC.0000000000002248

Alternate Title

Pediatr Emerg Care

PMID

32970023

Title

Convalescent plasma for pediatric patients with SARS-CoV-2-associated acute respiratory distress syndrome.

Year of Publication

2020

Number of Pages

e28693

Date Published

2020 Sep 04

ISSN Number

1545-5017

Abstract

<p>There are no proven safe and effective therapies for children who develop life-threatening complications of severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2). Convalescent plasma (CP) has demonstrated potential benefit in adults with SARS-CoV-2, but has theoretical risks.We present the first report of CP in children with life-threatening coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19), providing data on four pediatric patients with acute respiratory distress syndrome. We measured donor antibody levels and recipient antibody response prior to and following CP infusion. Infusion of CP was not associated with antibody-dependent enhancement (ADE) and did not suppress endogenous antibody response. We found CP was safe and possibly efficacious. Randomized pediatric trials are needed.</p>

DOI

10.1002/pbc.28693

Alternate Title

Pediatr Blood Cancer

PMID

32885904

Title

Human Adenovirus 7-Associated Hemophagocytic Lymphohistiocytosis-Like Illness: Clinical and Virological Characteristics in a Cluster of Five Pediatric Cases.

Year of Publication

2020

Date Published

2020 Aug 31

ISSN Number

1537-6591

Abstract

<p><strong>BACKGROUND: </strong>Hemophagocytic lymphohistiocytosis (HLH) is a life-threatening condition of immune dysregulation. Children often suffer from primary genetic forms of HLH, which can be triggered by infection. Others suffer from secondary HLH as a complication of infection, malignancy, or rheumatologic disease. Identifying the exact cause of HLH is crucial, as definitive treatment for primary disease is hematopoietic stem cell transplant. Adenoviruses have been associated with HLH but molecular epidemiology data are lacking.</p>

<p><strong>METHODS: </strong>We describe the clinical and virologic characteristics of 5 children admitted with adenovirus infection during 2018-2019 who developed HLH or HLH-like illness. Detailed virologic studies, including virus isolation and comprehensive molecular typing were performed.</p>

<p><strong>RESULTS: </strong>All patients recovered; clinical management varied but included immunomodulating and antiviral therapies. A genetic predisposition for HLH was not identified in any patient. Adenovirus isolates were recovered from 4/5 cases; all were identified as genomic variant 7d. Adenovirus type 7 DNA was detected in the fifth case. Phylogenetic analysis of genome sequences identified two clusters - one related to strains implicated in 2016-2017 outbreaks in Pennsylvania and New Jersey, the other related to a 2009 Chinese strain.</p>

<p><strong>CONCLUSIONS: </strong>It can be challenging to determine whether HLH is the result of an infectious pathogen alone or genetic predisposition triggered by an infection. We describe 5 children from the same center presenting with an HLH-like illness after onset of adenovirus type 7 infection. None of the patients were found to have a genetic predisposition to HLH. These findings suggest that adenovirus 7 infection alone can result in HLH.</p>

DOI

10.1093/cid/ciaa1277

Alternate Title

Clin. Infect. Dis.

PMID

32866230

Title

Multisystem inflammatory syndrome in children and COVID-19 are distinct presentations of SARS-CoV-2.

Year of Publication

2020

Date Published

2020 Jul 30

ISSN Number

1558-8238

Abstract

<p><strong>BACKGROUND: </strong>Initial reports from the Severe Acute Respiratory Coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) pandemic described children as being less susceptible to Coronavirus Disease 2019 (COVID-19) than adults. Subsequently, a severe and novel pediatric disorder termed Multisystem Inflammatory Syndrome in Children (MIS-C) emerged. We report on unique hematologic and immunologic parameters that distinguish between COVID-19 and MIS-C and provide insight into pathophysiology.</p>

<p><strong>METHODS: </strong>We prospectively enrolled hospitalized patients with evidence of SARS-CoV-2 infection and classified them as having MIS-C or COVID-19. Patients with COVID-19 were classified as having either minimal or severe disease. Cytokine profiles, viral cycle thresholds (Cts), blood smears, and soluble C5b-9 values were analyzed with clinical data. Twenty patients were enrolled (9 severe COVID-19, 5 minimal COVID-19, and 6 MIS-C). Five cytokines (IFN-γ, IL-10, IL-6, IL-8 and TNF-α) contributed to the analysis. TNF-α and IL-10 discriminated between patients with MIS-C and severe COVID-19. Cts and burr cells on blood smears also differentiated between patients with severe COVID-19 and those with MIS-C.</p>

<p><strong>CONCLUSION: </strong>Pediatric patients with SARS-CoV-2 are at risk for critical illness with severe COVID-19 and MIS-C. Cytokine profiling and examination of peripheral blood smears may distinguish between patients with MIS-C and severe COVID-19.</p>

DOI

10.1172/JCI140970

Alternate Title

J. Clin. Invest.

PMID

32730233

Title

Multisystem Inflammatory Syndrome in Children during the COVID-19 pandemic: a case series.

Year of Publication

2020

Date Published

2020 May 28

ISSN Number

2048-7207

Abstract

<p>We present a series of six critically ill children with Multisystem Inflammatory Syndrome in Children (MIS-C). Key findings of this syndrome include fever, diarrhea, shock, and variable presence of rash, conjunctivitis, extremity edema, and mucous membrane changes.</p>

DOI

10.1093/jpids/piaa069

Alternate Title

J Pediatric Infect Dis Soc

PMID

32463092

Title

Patient-reported Outcomes across Categories of Juvenile Idiopathic Arthritis.

Year of Publication

2015

Number of Pages

1914-21

Date Published

2015 Oct

ISSN Number

0315-162X

Abstract

<p><strong>OBJECTIVE: </strong>Although there is increasing reliance on patient-reported outcomes (PRO) for disease management, there is little known about the differences in PRO across juvenile idiopathic arthritis (JIA) categories. The purpose of our study was to assess PRO across JIA categories, including pain, quality of life, and physical function, and to determine clinical factors associated with differences in these measures across categories.</p>

<p><strong>METHODS: </strong>This was a longitudinal cohort study of patients with JIA at a tertiary care pediatric rheumatology clinic. Subjects, PRO, and clinical variables were identified by querying the electronic medical record. Mixed-effects regression assessed pain, quality of life, and function.</p>

<p><strong>RESULTS: </strong>Subjects with enthesitis-related arthritis (ERA) and undifferentiated JIA had significantly more pain, poorer quality of life, and poorer physical function. The ERA and undifferentiated JIA categories, physician's global disease activity assessment, female sex, and nonsteroidal antiinflammatory drug use were significantly associated with more pain, poorer quality of life, and poorer function. In models limited to ERA, female sex and tender enthesis count were significant predictors of decreased function.</p>

<p><strong>CONCLUSION: </strong>ERA and undifferentiated JIA categories had poorer PRO than other JIA categories. Further work is needed to address ways to improve PRO in children with JIA, with a special focus on children with ERA and undifferentiated JIA.</p>

DOI

10.3899/jrheum.150092

Alternate Title

J. Rheumatol.

PMID

26329337

Title

BIRC4 Mutation: An Important Rare Cause of Uveitis.

Year of Publication

2015

Number of Pages

444-7

Date Published

2015 Dec

ISSN Number

1536-7355

Abstract

<p>We report a 6-year-old man with chronic severe recalcitrant bilateral anterior uveitis and a remote history of hemophagocytic lymphocytic histiocytosis secondary to Epstein-Barr virus infection. The patient was treated for idiopathic uveitis after an initial extensive evaluation failed to reveal a specific diagnosis. The patient failed to achieve sustained inactive disease with multiple monotherapies including topical glucocorticoid, methotrexate, infliximab, mycophenolate mofeti, and cyclosporine. Disease control was finally attained with a combination of cyclosporine and adalimumab. After more recent testing, he was found to have a novel deletion on the BIRC4 (baclovirus inhibitor of apoptosis repeat containing protein 4) gene, the causative gene for X-linked lymphoproliferative syndrome type 2. We conclude that male patients with chronic idiopathic uveitis should be questioned about a history of hemophagocytic lymphocytic histiocytosis during their workup and screened for BIRC4 mutation if appropriate.</p>

DOI

10.1097/RHU.0000000000000327

Alternate Title

J Clin Rheumatol

PMID

26513308

Title

Enthesitis in an inception cohort of enthesitis-related arthritis.

Year of Publication

2011

Number of Pages

1307-12

Date Published

2011 Sep

ISSN Number

2151-4658

Abstract

<p><strong>OBJECTIVE: </strong>To describe an enthesitis-related arthritis (ERA) inception cohort and determine which entheses and joints are most commonly affected.</p>

<p><strong>METHODS: </strong>We reviewed a retrospective inception cohort study of children with ERA who were diagnosed and treated at The Children's Hospital of Philadelphia between November 2007 and December 2009.</p>

<p><strong>RESULTS: </strong>During the study period, there were 32 newly diagnosed ERA patients. Fifty-nine percent were male, and the median age at the date of initial evaluation was 12.5 years (interquartile range [IQR] 10.2-14.3 years). The median number of tender entheses at presentation was 2 (IQR 0-5), and 21 subjects (66%) had at least 1 tender enthesis. The most prevalent tender entheses were the patellar ligament insertion at the inferior pole of the patella, the plantar fascial insertion at the calcaneus, the Achilles tendon insertion at the calcaneus, and the plantar fascial insertion at the metatarsal heads. Enthesitis was most often symmetric. The median number of active joints was 2 (IQR 0-4). The most commonly affected joints were the sacroiliacs, knees, and ankles. Sacroiliitis, which was defined clinically, was most often symmetric, while peripheral arthritis was most frequently asymmetric. The odds of having active enthesitis at 6 months increased significantly with each additional tender enthesis at the initial evaluation.</p>

<p><strong>CONCLUSION: </strong>Among pediatric patients with ERA, lower extremity enthesitis is prevalent at the time of diagnosis and is likely to persist 6 months later. Future studies should address standardization of the enthesitis examination, the pattern of enthesitis over time, enthesitis response to therapy, and the impact of enthesitis on quality of life.</p>

DOI

10.1002/acr.20508

Alternate Title

Arthritis Care Res (Hoboken)

PMID

21618453

WATCH THIS PAGE

Subscription is not available for this page.