First name
Louis
Middle name
S
Last name
Constine

Title

Hypothalamic-Pituitary and Other Endocrine Surveillance Among Childhood Cancer Survivors.

Year of Publication

2021

Date Published

2021 Nov 20

ISSN Number

1945-7189

Abstract

<p>Endocrine disorders in survivors of childhood, adolescent, and young adult (CAYA) cancers are associated with substantial adverse physical and psychosocial effects. To improve appropriate and timely endocrine screening and referral to a specialist, the International Late Effects of Childhood Cancer Guideline Harmonization Group (IGHG) aims to develop evidence and expert consensus-based guidelines for healthcare providers that harmonize recommendations for surveillance of endocrine disorders in CAYA cancer survivors. Existing IGHG surveillance recommendations for premature ovarian insufficiency, gonadotoxicity in males, fertility preservation, and thyroid cancer are summarized. For hypothalamic-pituitary (HP) dysfunction, new surveillance recommendations were formulated by a guideline panel consisting of 42 interdisciplinary international experts. A systematic literature search was performed in MEDLINE (through PubMed) for clinically relevant questions concerning HP dysfunction. Literature was screened for eligibility. Recommendations were formulated by drawing conclusions from quality assessment of all evidence, considering the potential benefits of early detection and appropriate management. Healthcare providers should be aware that CAYA cancer survivors have an increased risk for endocrine disorders, including HP dysfunction. Regular surveillance with clinical history, anthropomorphic measures, physical examination, and laboratory measurements is recommended in at-risk survivors. When endocrine disorders are suspected, healthcare providers should proceed with timely referrals to specialized services. These international evidence-based recommendations for surveillance of endocrine disorders in CAYA cancer survivors inform healthcare providers and highlight the need for long-term endocrine follow-up care in subgroups of survivors and elucidate opportunities for further research.</p>

DOI

10.1210/endrev/bnab040

Alternate Title

Endocr Rev

PMID

34962573

Title

Late health outcomes after dexrazoxane treatment: A report from the Children's Oncology Group.

Year of Publication

2021

Date Published

2021 Oct 13

ISSN Number

1097-0142

Abstract

<p><strong>BACKGROUND: </strong>The objective of this study was to examine long-term outcomes among children newly diagnosed with cancer who were treated in dexrazoxane-containing clinical trials.</p>

<p><strong>METHODS: </strong>P9404 (acute lymphoblastic leukemia/lymphoma [ALL]), P9425 and P9426 (Hodgkin lymphoma), P9754 (osteosarcoma), and Dana-Farber Cancer Institute 95-01 (ALL) enrolled 1308 patients between 1996 and 2001: 1066 were randomized (1:1) to doxorubicin with or without dexrazoxane, and 242 (from P9754) were nonrandomly assigned to receive dexrazoxane. Trial data were linked with the National Death Index, the Organ Procurement and Transplantation Network, the Pediatric Health Information System (PHIS), and Medicaid. Osteosarcoma survivors from the Childhood Cancer Survivor Study (CCSS; n&nbsp;=&nbsp;495; no dexrazoxane) served as comparators in subanalyses. Follow-up events were assessed with cumulative incidence, Cox regression, and Fine-Gray methods.</p>

<p><strong>RESULTS: </strong>In randomized trials (cumulative prescribed doxorubicin dose, 100-360&nbsp;mg/m ; median follow-up, 18.6&nbsp;years), dexrazoxane was not associated with relapse (hazard ratio [HR], 0.84; 95% confidence interval [CI], 0.63-1.13), second cancers (HR, 1.19; 95% CI, 0.62-2.30), all-cause mortality (HR, 1.07; 95% CI, 0.78-1.47), or cardiovascular mortality (HR, 1.45; 95% CI, 0.41-5.16). Among P9754 patients (all exposed to dexrazoxane; cumulative doxorubicin, 450-600&nbsp;mg/m ; median follow-up, 16.6-18.4&nbsp;years), no cardiovascular deaths or heart transplantation occurred. The 20-year heart transplantation rate among CCSS osteosarcoma survivors (mean doxorubicin, 377&nbsp;±&nbsp;145&nbsp;mg/m ) was 1.6% (vs 0% in P9754; P&nbsp;=&nbsp;.13). Among randomized patients, serious cardiovascular outcomes (cardiomyopathy, ischemic heart disease, and stroke) ascertained by PHIS/Medicaid occurred less commonly with dexrazoxane (5.6%) than without it (17.6%; P&nbsp;=&nbsp;.02), although cardiomyopathy rates alone did not differ (4.4% vs 8.1%; P&nbsp;=&nbsp;.35).</p>

<p><strong>CONCLUSIONS: </strong>Dexrazoxane did not appear to adversely affect long-term mortality, event-free survival, or second cancer risk.</p>

DOI

10.1002/cncr.33974

Alternate Title

Cancer

PMID

34644414

Title

Bone mineral density surveillance for childhood, adolescent, and young adult cancer survivors: evidence-based recommendations from the International Late Effects of Childhood Cancer Guideline Harmonization Group.

Year of Publication

2021

Date Published

2021 Jul 30

ISSN Number

2213-8595

Abstract

<p>Childhood, adolescent, and young adult cancer survivors are at increased risk of reduced bone mineral density. Clinical practice surveillance guidelines are important for timely diagnosis and treatment of these survivors, which could improve bone mineral density parameters and prevent fragility fractures. Discordances across current late effects guidelines necessitated international harmonisation of recommendations for bone mineral density surveillance. The International Late Effects of Childhood Cancer Guideline Harmonization Group therefore established a panel of 36 experts from ten countries, representing a range of relevant medical specialties. The evidence of risk factors for very low and low bone mineral density and fractures, surveillance modality, timing of bone mineral density surveillance, and treatment of very low and low bone mineral density were evaluated and critically appraised, and harmonised recommendations for childhood, adolescent, and young adult cancer survivors were formulated. We graded the recommendations based on the quality of evidence and balance between potential benefits and harms. Bone mineral density surveillance is recommended for survivors treated with cranial or craniospinal radiotherapy and is reasonable for survivors treated with total body irradiation. Due to insufficient evidence, no recommendation can be formulated for or against bone mineral density surveillance for survivors treated with corticosteroids. This surveillance decision should be made by the survivor and health-care provider together, after careful consideration of the potential harms and benefits and additional risk factors. We recommend to carry out bone mineral density surveillance using dual-energy x-ray absorptiometry at entry into long-term follow-up, and if normal (Z-score &gt; -1), repeat when the survivor is aged 25 years. Between these measurements and thereafter, surveillance should be done as clinically indicated. These recommendations facilitate evidence-based care for childhood, adolescent, and young adult cancer survivors internationally.</p>

DOI

10.1016/S2213-8587(21)00173-X

Alternate Title

Lancet Diabetes Endocrinol

PMID

34339631

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