First name
Adrie
Last name
Bekker

Title

SafeHANDS: A Multimodal Hand Hygiene Intervention in a Resource-Limited Neonatal Unit.

Year of Publication

2022

Number of Pages

Date Published

12/2022

ISSN Number

2414-6366

Abstract

BACKGROUND: Hand hygiene (HH) is a cornerstone of programmes to prevent healthcare associated infections (HAI) globally, but HH interventions are seldom reported from African neonatal units.

METHODS: We conducted a quasi-experimental study evaluating the impact of a multi-modal intervention (SafeHANDS) on HH compliance rates, alcohol-based handrub (ABHR) usage, the Hand Hygiene Self-Assessment Framework (HHSAF) score, and healthcare-associated bloodstream infection (HA-BSI) rates at a 132-bed South African neonatal unit (4 wards and 1 neonatal intensive care unit [NICU]). The intervention included a campaign logo, HH training, maternal education leaflets, ABHR bottles for staff, and the setting of HH performance targets with feedback. Three 5-month study phases were completed in July 2020 (baseline), December 2020 (early) and May 2021 (intensive).

RESULTS: A total of 2430 HH opportunities were observed: 1002 (41.3%) at baseline, 630 (25.9%) at early and 798 (32.8%) at intensive study phases. At baseline, the overall neonatal unit HH compliance rate was 61.6%, ABHR use was 70 mL/patient day, and the baseline HHSAF score was 'basic' (165). The overall neonatal unit HH compliance rate was unchanged from baseline to intensive phases (617/1002 [61.6%] vs. 497/798 [62.3%]; = 0.797). The ABHR use remained similar between phases (70 versus 73 mL/patient day). The HHSAF score improved to 'intermediate' level (262). There was no change in the neonatal unit HA-BSI rate.

CONCLUSION: Despite improvement in the HHSAF score, no improvement in overall HH compliance rates, ABHR usage, or HA-BSI rates was observed. Future HH interventions in resource-limited neonatal units should incorporate implementation science and behaviour modification strategies to better understand the barriers and facilitators of HH best practice.

DOI

10.3390/tropicalmed8010027

Alternate Title

Trop Med Infect Dis

PMID

36668933
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Title

Epidemiology of clinically suspected and laboratory-confirmed bloodstream infections at a South African neonatal unit.

Year of Publication

2021

Number of Pages

943-952

Date Published

2021 Jul 31

ISSN Number

1972-2680

Abstract

<p><strong>INTRODUCTION: </strong>Data from Africa reporting the epidemiology of infection in hospitalised neonates are limited.</p>

<p><strong>METHODOLOGY: </strong>A prospective study with convenience sampling was conducted to characterise neonates investigated with blood culture/s for suspected infection at a 132-bed neonatal unit in Cape Town, South Africa (1 February-31 October 2018). Enrolled neonates were classified as having proven bloodstream infection (BSI) (blood culture-positive with a pathogen) or presumed infection (clinically suspected but blood culture-negative) or as potentially at risk of infection (maternal risk factors at birth).</p>

<p><strong>RESULTS: </strong>Of 1299 hospitalised neonates with &gt;1 blood culture sampling episode, 712 (55%) were enrolled: 126 (17.7%) had proven BSI; 299 (42%) had presumed infection and 287 (40.3%) were potentially at risk of infection. Neonates with proven BSI had lower birth weight and higher rates of co-existing surgical conditions versus the presumed/potential infection groups (p &lt; 0.001). Median onset of proven BSI versus presumed infection was at 8 (IQR = 5-13) and 1 (IQR = 0-5) days respectively (p &lt; 0.001). Most proven BSI were healthcare-associated (114/126; 90.5%), with Klebsiella pneumoniae (80.6% extended-spectrum β-lactamase producers) and Staphylococcus aureus (66.7% methicillin-resistant) predominating. Mortality from proven BSI (34/126; 27%) was substantially higher than that observed in presumed (8/299; 2.7%) and potential infections (3/287; 1.0%) (p &lt; 0.001). The odds of death from proven BSI was 3-fold higher for Gram-negatives than for Gram-positive/fungal pathogens (OR = 3.23; 95% CI = 1.17-8.92).</p>

<p><strong>CONCLUSIONS: </strong>Proven BSI episodes were predominantly healthcare-associated and associated with a high case fatality rate. Most neonates with presumed infection or at potential risk of infection had favourable 30-day outcomes.</p>

DOI

10.3855/jidc.13971

Alternate Title

J Infect Dev Ctries

PMID

34343119
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Title

Impact of 1% chlorhexidine gluconate bathing and emollient application on bacterial pathogen colonization dynamics in hospitalized preterm neonates - A pilot clinical trial.

Year of Publication

2021

Number of Pages

100946

Date Published

2021 Jul

ISSN Number

2589-5370

Abstract

<p><strong>Background: </strong>Chlorhexidine gluconate (CHG) body washes and emollient application may modulate bacterial pathogen colonization and prevent neonatal hospital-acquired infections.</p>

<p><strong>Methods: </strong>This pilot, non-randomized, open-label trial, enrolled preterm neonates (1000-1500g; day 1-3 of life) at a tertiary hospital in Cape Town, South Africa. Participants were sequentially allocated to 4 trial arms (n=20 each): 1% aqueous CHG (CHG), 1% CHG plus emollient (CHG+EM), emollient only (EM) and standard of care (SOC: no antiseptic/emollient). Trial treatment/s were applied daily for 10 days (d) post-enrolment, documenting neonatal skin condition score. Anterior nose, neck, umbilical and perianal swabs for bacterial culture were collected at d1, d3, d10 and d16 post-enrolment, (±1 day), reporting pathogen acquisition rates and semi-quantitative bacterial colony counts. (ClinicalTrials.gov identifier: NCT03896893; trial status: closed).</p>

<p><strong>Findings: </strong>Eighty preterm neonates (mean gestational age 30 weeks [SD 2]) were enrolled between 4 March and 26 August 2019. The bacterial pathogen acquisition rate (comparing d1 and d16 swabs) varied from 33·9% [95%CI 22·9-47·0] at the umbilicus, 39·3% [95%CI 27·6-52·4] at the neck, to 71·4% [95%CI 58·5-81·7] at both the nose and perianal region. At d10, CHG babies had reduced bacterial density detected from neck, umbilicus, and perianal swabs compared to other groups (see Table 3). Following intervention cessation, colonization density was similar across all trial arms, but colonization was more prevalent among EM and CHG+EM babies. Neonatal skin condition score improved in babies receiving emollient application (EM: -0·87 [95%CI 0·69-1·06] and CHG+EM: -0·73 [0·45-0·99]), compared to the SOC and CHG arms (Table 2); no CHG-related skin reactions occurred.</p>

<p><strong>Interpretation: </strong>Bacterial colonization density was significantly reduced in babies receiving 1% CHG washes but colonization levels rebounded rapidly post-intervention. Emollient application improved skin condition but was associated with higher rates of colonization.</p>

<p><strong>Funding: </strong>South African Medical Research Council; National Institutes of Health (TW010682).</p>

DOI

10.1016/j.eclinm.2021.100946

Alternate Title

EClinicalMedicine

PMID

34195575
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