First name
Susan
Middle name
R
Last name
Rheingold

Title

Impact of poverty and neighborhood opportunity on outcomes for children treated with CD19-directed CAR T-cell therapy.

Year of Publication

2022

Date Published

11/2022

ISSN Number

1528-0020

Abstract

Children living in poverty experience excess relapse and death from newly diagnosed acute lymphoblastic leukemia (ALL). The influence of household poverty and neighborhood social determinants on outcomes from CAR T-cell therapy for relapsed/refractory (r/r) leukemia is poorly described. We identified patients with r/r CD19+ ALL/lymphoblastic lymphoma treated on CD19-directed CAR T-cell clinical trials or with commercial tisagenlecleucel from 2012 to 2020. Socioeconomic status (SES) was proxied at the household-level, with poverty-exposure defined as Medicaid-only insurance. Low neighborhood opportunity was defined by the Childhood Opportunity Index. Among 206 patients aged 1-29, 35.9% were household-poverty exposed, and 24.9% had low neighborhood opportunity. Patients unexposed to household-poverty or low-opportunity neighborhoods were more likely to receive CAR T-cell therapy with high disease burden (>25%)-a disease characteristic associated with inferior outcomes-as compared to less advantaged patients (38% vs 30%; 37% vs 26%). Complete remission (CR) rate was 93% with no significant differences by household-poverty (P = 0.334) or neighborhood opportunity (P = 0.504). In multivariate analysis, patients from low-opportunity neighborhoods experienced increased hazard of relapse as compared to others (P = 0.006, adjusted HR 2.3, 95% CI 1.3-4.1). There was no difference in hazard of death (P = 0.545, adjusted HR 1.2, 95% CI 0.6-2.4). Among children who successfully receive CAR T-cell therapy, CR and OS is equitable regardless of proxied SES and neighborhood opportunity. Children from more advantaged households and neighborhoods receive CAR T-cell therapy with higher disease burden. Investigation of multicenter outcomes and access disparities outside of clinical-trial settings is warranted. Clinical trials: NCT01626495; NCT02435849 ; NCT02374333; NCT02228096; NCT02906371.

DOI

10.1182/blood.2022017866

Alternate Title

Blood

PMID

36351239

Title

Impact of high-risk cytogenetics on outcomes for children and young adults receiving CD19-directed CAR T-cell therapy.

Year of Publication

2022

Number of Pages

2173-2185

Date Published

2022 Apr 07

ISSN Number

1528-0020

Abstract

Chimeric antigen receptor (CAR) T-cell therapy can induce durable remissions of relapsed/refractory B-acute lymphoblastic leukemia (ALL). However, case reports suggested differential outcomes mediated by leukemia cytogenetics. We identified children and young adults with relapsed/refractory CD19+ ALL/lymphoblastic lymphoma treated on 5 CD19-directed CAR T-cell (CTL019 or humanized CART19) clinical trials or with commercial tisagenlecleucel from April 2012 to April 2019. Patients were hierarchically categorized according to leukemia cytogenetics: High-risk lesions were defined as KMT2A (MLL) rearrangements, Philadelphia chromosome (Ph+), Ph-like, hypodiploidy, or TCF3/HLF; favorable as hyperdiploidy or ETV6/RUNX1; and intermediate as iAMP21, IKZF1 deletion, or TCF3/PBX1. Of 231 patients aged 1 to 29, 74 (32%) were categorized as high risk, 28 (12%) as intermediate, 43 (19%) as favorable, and 86 (37%) as uninformative. Overall complete remission rate was 94%, with no difference between strata. There was no difference in relapse-free survival (RFS; P = .8112), with 2-year RFS for the high-risk group of 63% (95% confidence interval [CI], 52-77). There was similarly no difference seen in overall survival (OS) (P = .5488), with 2-year OS for the high-risk group of 70% (95% CI, 60-82). For patients with KMT2A-rearranged infant ALL (n = 13), 2-year RFS was 67% (95% CI, 45-99), and OS was 62% (95% CI, 40-95), with multivariable analysis demonstrating no increased risk of relapse (hazard ratio, 0.70; 95% CI, 0.21-2.90; P = .7040) but a higher proportion of relapses associated with myeloid lineage switch and a 3.6-fold increased risk of all-cause death (95% CI, 1.04-12.75; P = .0434). CTL019/huCART19/tisagenlecleucel are effective at achieving durable remissions across cytogenetic categories. Relapsed/refractory patients with high-risk cytogenetics, including KMT2A-rearranged infant ALL, demonstrated high RFS and OS probabilities at 2 years.

DOI

10.1182/blood.2021012727

Alternate Title

Blood

PMID

34871373

Title

CD19-targeted chimeric antigen receptor T-cell therapy for CNS relapsed or refractory acute lymphocytic leukaemia: a post-hoc analysis of pooled data from five clinical trials.

Year of Publication

2021

Number of Pages

e711-e722

Date Published

2021 Oct

ISSN Number

2352-3026

Abstract

<p><strong>BACKGROUND: </strong>CNS relapse of acute lymphocytic leukaemia is difficult to treat. Durable remissions of relapsed or refractory B-cell acute lymphocytic leukaemia have been observed following treatment with CD19-directed chimeric antigen receptor (CAR) T cells; however, most trials have excluded patients with active CNS disease. We aimed to assess the safety and activity of CAR T-cell therapy in patients with a history of CNS relapsed or refractory B-cell acute lymphocytic leukaemia.</p>

<p><strong>METHODS: </strong>In this post-hoc analysis, we included 195 patients (aged 1-29 years; 110 [56%] male and 85 [44%] female) with relapsed or refractory CD19-positive acute lymphocytic leukaemia or lymphocytic lymphoma from five clinical trials (Pedi CART19, 13BT022, ENSIGN, ELIANA, and 16CT022) done at the Children's Hospital of Philadelphia (Philadelphia, PA, USA), in which participants received CD19-directed CAR T-cell therapy between April 17, 2012, and April 16, 2019. The trials required control of CNS disease at enrolment and infusion and excluded treatment in the setting of acute neurological toxic effects (&gt;grade 1 in severity) or parenchymal lesions deemed to increase the risk of neurotoxicity. 154 patients from Pedi CART19, ELIANA, ENSIGN, and 16CT022 received tisagenlecleucel and 41 patients from the 13BT022 trial received the humanised CD19-directed CAR, huCART19. We categorised patients into two strata on the basis of CNS status at relapse or within the 12 months preceding CAR T-cell infusion-either CNS-positive or CNS-negative disease. Patients with CNS-positive disease were further divided on the basis of morphological bone marrow involvement-either combined bone marrow and CNS involvement, or isolated CNS involvement. Endpoints were the proportion of patients with complete response at 28 days after infusion, Kaplan-Meier analysis of relapse-free survival and overall survival, and the incidence of cytokine release syndrome and neurotoxicity.</p>

<p><strong>FINDINGS: </strong>Of all 195 patients, 66 (34%) were categorised as having CNS-positive disease and 129 (66%) as having CNS-negative disease, and 43 (22%) were categorised as having isolated CNS involvement. The median length of follow-up was 39 months (IQR 25-49) in the CNS-positive stratum and 36 months (18-49) in the CNS-negative stratum. The proportion of patients in the CNS-positive stratum with a complete response at 28 days after infusion was similar to that in the CNS-negative stratum (64 [97%] of 66 vs 121 [94%] of 129; p=0·74), with no significant difference in relapse-free survival (60% [95% CI 49-74] vs 60% [51-71]; p=0·50) or overall survival (83% [75-93] vs 71% [64-79]; p=0·39) at 2 years between the two groups. Overall survival at 2 years was significantly higher in patients with isolated CNS involvement compared with those with bone marrow involvement (91% [82-100] vs 71% [64-78]; p=0·046). The incidence and severity of neurotoxicity (any grade, 53 [41%] vs 38 [58%]; grade 1, 24 [19%] vs 20 [30%]; grade 2, 14 [11%] vs 10 [15%]; grade 3, 12 [9%] vs 6 [9%], and grade 4, 3 [2%] vs 2 [3%]; p=0·20) and cytokine release syndrome (any grade, 110 [85%] vs 53 [80%]; grade 1, 12 [9%] vs 2 [3%]; grade 2, 61 [47%] vs 38 [58%]; grade 3, 18 [14%] vs 7 [11%] and grade 4, 19 [15%] vs 6 [9%]; p=0·26) did not differ between the CNS-negative and the CNS-positive disease strata.</p>

<p><strong>INTERPRETATION: </strong>Tisagenlecleucel and huCART19 are active at clearing CNS disease and maintaining durable remissions in children and young adults with CNS relapsed or refractory B-cell acute lymphocytic leukaemia or lymphocytic lymphoma, without increasing the risk of severe neurotoxicity; although care should be taken in the timing of therapy and disease control to mitigate this risk. These preliminary findings support the use of these CAR T-cell therapies for patients with CNS relapsed or refractory B-cell acute lymphocytic leukaemia.</p>

<p><strong>FUNDING: </strong>Children's Hospital of Philadelphia Frontier Program.</p>

DOI

10.1016/S2352-3026(21)00238-6

Alternate Title

Lancet Haematol

PMID

34560014

Title

Humanized CD19-Targeted Chimeric Antigen Receptor (CAR) T Cells in CAR-Naive and CAR-Exposed Children and Young Adults With Relapsed or Refractory Acute Lymphoblastic Leukemia.

Year of Publication

2021

Number of Pages

JCO2003458

Date Published

2021 Jun 22

ISSN Number

1527-7755

Abstract

<p><strong>PURPOSE: </strong>CD19-targeted chimeric antigen receptor (CAR)-modified T cells demonstrate unprecedented responses in B-cell acute lymphoblastic leukemia (B-ALL); however, relapse remains a substantial challenge. Short CAR T-cell persistence contributes to this risk; therefore, strategies to improve persistence are needed.</p>

<p><strong>METHODS: </strong>We conducted a pilot clinical trial of a humanized CD19 CAR T-cell product (huCART19) in children and young adults with relapsed or refractory B-ALL (n = 72) or B-lymphoblastic lymphoma (n = 2), treated in two cohorts: with (retreatment, n = 33) or without (CAR-naive, n = 41) prior CAR exposure. Patients were monitored for toxicity, response, and persistence of huCART19.</p>

<p><strong>RESULTS: </strong>Seventy-four patients 1-29 years of age received huCART19. Cytokine release syndrome developed in 62 (84%) patients and was grade 4 in five (6.8%). Neurologic toxicities were reported in 29 (39%), three (4%) grade 3 or 4, and fully resolved in all cases. The overall response rate at 1 month after infusion was 98% (100% in B-ALL) in the CAR-naive cohort and 64% in the retreatment cohort. At 6 months, the probability of losing huCART19 persistence was 27% (95% CI, 14 to 41) for CAR-naive and 48% (95% CI, 30 to 64) for retreatment patients, whereas the incidence of B-cell recovery was 15% (95% CI, 6 to 28) and 58% (95% CI, 33 to 77), respectively. Relapse-free survival at 12 and 24 months, respectively, was 84% (95% CI, 72 to 97) and 74% (95% CI, 60 to 90) in CAR-naive and 74% (95% CI, 56 to 97) and 58% (95% CI, 37 to 90) in retreatment cohorts.</p>

<p><strong>CONCLUSION: </strong>HuCART19 achieved durable remissions with long-term persistence in children and young adults with relapsed or refractory B-ALL, including after failure of prior CAR T-cell therapy.</p>

DOI

10.1200/JCO.20.03458

Alternate Title

J Clin Oncol

PMID

34156874

Title

Delayed cancer diagnoses and high mortality in children during the COVID-19 pandemic.

Year of Publication

2020

Number of Pages

e28427

Date Published

2020 Jun 26

ISSN Number

1545-5017

DOI

10.1002/pbc.28427

Alternate Title

Pediatr Blood Cancer

PMID

32588960

Title

Identification of Predictive Biomarkers for Cytokine Release Syndrome after Chimeric Antigen Receptor T-cell Therapy for Acute Lymphoblastic Leukemia.

Year of Publication

2016

Number of Pages

664-79

Date Published

2016 06

ISSN Number

2159-8290

Abstract

<p><strong>UNLABELLED: </strong>Chimeric antigen receptor (CAR)-modified T cells with anti-CD19 specificity are a highly effective novel immune therapy for relapsed/refractory acute lymphoblastic leukemia. Cytokine release syndrome (CRS) is the most significant and life-threatening toxicity. To improve understanding of CRS, we measured cytokines and clinical biomarkers in 51 CTL019-treated patients. Peak levels of 24 cytokines, including IFNγ, IL6, sgp130, and sIL6R, in the first month after infusion were highly associated with severe CRS. Using regression modeling, we could accurately predict which patients would develop severe CRS with a signature composed of three cytokines. Results were validated in an independent cohort. Changes in serum biochemical markers, including C-reactive protein and ferritin, were associated with CRS but failed to predict development of severe CRS. These comprehensive profiling data provide novel insights into CRS biology and, importantly, represent the first data that can accurately predict which patients have a high probability of becoming critically ill.</p>

<p><strong>SIGNIFICANCE: </strong>CRS is the most common severe toxicity seen after CAR T-cell treatment. We developed models that can accurately predict which patients are likely to develop severe CRS before they become critically ill, which improves understanding of CRS biology and may guide future cytokine-directed therapy. Cancer Discov; 6(6); 664-79. ©2016 AACR.See related commentary by Rouce and Heslop, p. 579This article is highlighted in the In This Issue feature, p. 561.</p>

DOI

10.1158/2159-8290.CD-16-0040

Alternate Title

Cancer Discov

PMID

27076371

Title

Supportive care utilization and treatment toxicity in children with Down syndrome and acute lymphoid leukaemia at free-standing paediatric hospitals in the United States.

Year of Publication

2016

Number of Pages

591-9

Date Published

2016

ISSN Number

1365-2141

Abstract

<p>Although inferior outcomes of children with Down syndrome (DS) and acute lymphoid leukaemia (ALL) are established, national supportive care patterns for these patients are unknown. A validated retrospective cohort of paediatric patients diagnosed with ALL from 1999 to 2011 was assembled from the US Pediatric Health Information System (PHIS) database to examine organ toxicity, sepsis, and resource utilization in children with and without DS. Among 10699 ALL patients, 298 had DS-ALL (2·8%). In a multivariate model, DS was associated with increased risk of cardiovascular (odds ratio [OR] 2·0, 95% confidence interval [CI] 1·6-2·7), respiratory (OR 2·1, 95% CI: 1·6-2·9), neurologic (OR 3·4, 95% CI 1·9-6·2), and hepatic (OR 1·4, 95% CI 1·0-1·9) dysfunction and sepsis (OR 1·8, 95% CI: 1·4-2·4). Children with DS-ALL used significantly more respiratory support, insulin, and anti-infectives, including broad-spectrum Gram-positive agents, quinolones, and azoles. They used significantly fewer analgesics and antiemetics compared to non-DS-ALL children. Ultimately, this study confirms the increased risk of infectious and end-organ toxicity in children with DS-ALL and quantifies important differences in resource utilization between children with DS and non-DS ALL. These findings highlight the importance of investigating the impact of these care variations and developing specific supportive care guidelines for this population.</p>

DOI

10.1111/bjh.14085

Alternate Title

Br. J. Haematol.

PMID

27161549

Title

Treatment of Osteonecrosis in Children and Adolescents With Acute Lymphoblastic Leukemia.

Year of Publication

2016

Number of Pages

223-229.e2

Date Published

2016 Apr

ISSN Number

2152-2669

Abstract

<p><strong>BACKGROUND: </strong>Cure rates for acute lymphoblastic leukemia (ALL) have improved, but as therapy has intensified, the burden of osteonecrosis (ON) has increased. Limited data exist regarding surgical interventions for pediatric ALL patients with ON.</p>

<p><strong>MATERIALS AND METHODS: </strong>A multi-center cohort of children with newly diagnosed ALL was established with Pediatric Health Information System (PHIS) data from 43 freestanding children's hospitals from 1999 to 2011. Patients with ON identified by International Classification of Diseases, Ninth Revision (ICD-9) code were followed for up to 5 years after index ALL admission for the presence of ON-associated orthopedic surgical procedures.</p>

<p><strong>RESULTS: </strong>A cohort of 10,729 ALL patients was assembled, of which 242 (2.33%) were identified with an ICD-9 code for ON within 5 years of ALL diagnosis. Fifty-five patients (22.7%) with ON underwent orthopedic surgical intervention aimed at joint preservation (82%) or replacement (18%) with substantial practice variation by hospital in both the rate and type of surgical intervention. The majority of patients had surgical procedures while receiving maintenance therapy. None of the patients undergoing surgical intervention required intensive care unit-level care within 14 days of surgery, and there was no associated in-hospital mortality.</p>

<p><strong>CONCLUSIONS: </strong>No standard of care exists for treatment of ALL-associated ON. While considerable practice variation exists, surgical intervention appears relatively safe.</p>

DOI

10.1016/j.clml.2015.12.009

Alternate Title

Clin Lymphoma Myeloma Leuk

PMID

27021949

Title

Chimeric antigen receptor T cells for sustained remissions in leukemia.

Year of Publication

2014

Number of Pages

1507-17

Date Published

2014 Oct 16

ISSN Number

1533-4406

Abstract

<p><strong>BACKGROUND: </strong>Relapsed acute lymphoblastic leukemia (ALL) is difficult to treat despite the availability of aggressive therapies. Chimeric antigen receptor-modified T cells targeting CD19 may overcome many limitations of conventional therapies and induce remission in patients with refractory disease.</p>

<p><strong>METHODS: </strong>We infused autologous T cells transduced with a CD19-directed chimeric antigen receptor (CTL019) lentiviral vector in patients with relapsed or refractory ALL at doses of 0.76×10(6) to 20.6×10(6) CTL019 cells per kilogram of body weight. Patients were monitored for a response, toxic effects, and the expansion and persistence of circulating CTL019 T cells.</p>

<p><strong>RESULTS: </strong>A total of 30 children and adults received CTL019. Complete remission was achieved in 27 patients (90%), including 2 patients with blinatumomab-refractory disease and 15 who had undergone stem-cell transplantation. CTL019 cells proliferated in vivo and were detectable in the blood, bone marrow, and cerebrospinal fluid of patients who had a response. Sustained remission was achieved with a 6-month event-free survival rate of 67% (95% confidence interval [CI], 51 to 88) and an overall survival rate of 78% (95% CI, 65 to 95). At 6 months, the probability that a patient would have persistence of CTL019 was 68% (95% CI, 50 to 92) and the probability that a patient would have relapse-free B-cell aplasia was 73% (95% CI, 57 to 94). All the patients had the cytokine-release syndrome. Severe cytokine-release syndrome, which developed in 27% of the patients, was associated with a higher disease burden before infusion and was effectively treated with the anti-interleukin-6 receptor antibody tocilizumab.</p>

<p><strong>CONCLUSIONS: </strong>Chimeric antigen receptor-modified T-cell therapy against CD19 was effective in treating relapsed and refractory ALL. CTL019 was associated with a high remission rate, even among patients for whom stem-cell transplantation had failed, and durable remissions up to 24 months were observed. (Funded by Novartis and others; CART19 ClinicalTrials.gov numbers, NCT01626495 and NCT01029366.).</p>

DOI

10.1056/NEJMoa1407222

Alternate Title

N. Engl. J. Med.

PMID

25317870

Title

Patient and hospital factors associated with induction mortality in acute lymphoblastic leukemia.

Year of Publication

2014

Number of Pages

846-52

Date Published

2014 May

ISSN Number

1545-5017

Abstract

<p><strong>BACKGROUND: </strong>Deaths during induction chemotherapy for pediatric acute lymphoblastic leukemia (ALL) account for one-tenth of ALL-associated mortality and half of ALL treatment-related mortality. We sought to ascertain patient- and hospital-level factors associated with induction mortality.</p>

<p><strong>PROCEDURE: </strong>We performed a retrospective cohort analysis of 8,516 children ages 0 to &lt;19 years with newly diagnosed ALL admitted to freestanding US children's hospitals from 1999 to 2009 using the Pediatric Health Information System database. Induction mortality risk was modeled accounting for demographics, intensive care unit-level interventions, and socioeconomic status (SES) using Cox regression. The association of ALL induction mortality with hospital-level factors including volume, hospital-wide mortality and payer mix was analyzed with multiple linear regression.</p>

<p><strong>RESULTS: </strong>ALL induction mortality was 1.12%. Race and patient-level SES factors were not associated with induction mortality. Patients receiving both mechanical ventilation and vasoactive infusions experienced nearly 50% mortality (hazard ratio 122.30, 95% CI 66.56-224.80). Institutions in the highest induction mortality quartile contributed 27% of all patients but nearly half of all deaths (47 of 95). Hospital payer mix was associated with ALL induction mortality after adjustment for other hospital-level factors (P = 0.046).</p>

<p><strong>CONCLUSIONS: </strong>The overall risk of induction death is low but substantially increased in patients with cardio-respiratory and other organ failures. Induction mortality varies up to three-fold across hospitals and is correlated with hospital payer mix. Further work is needed to improve induction outcomes in hospitals with higher mortality. These data suggest an induction mortality rate of less than 1% may be an attainable national benchmark.</p>

DOI

10.1002/pbc.24855

Alternate Title

Pediatr Blood Cancer

PMID

24249480

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