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Epidemiology and Outcomes of Infants after Cardiopulmonary Resuscitation in the Neonatal or Pediatric Intensive Care Unit from a National Registry.

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2021 Jun 06

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<p><strong>AIM: </strong>Cardiopulmonary resuscitation (CPR) in hospitalized infants is a relatively uncommon but high-risk event associated with mortality. The study objective was to identify factors associated with mortality and survival among infants who receive CPR in the neonatal intensive care unit (NICU) or pediatric intensive care unit (PICU).</p>

<p><strong>METHODS: </strong>Retrospective observational study of infants with an index CPR event in the NICU or PICU between 1/1/06 and 12/31/18 in the American Heart Association's Get With The Guidelines-Resuscitation registry. Associations between patient, event, unit, and hospital factors and the primary outcome, mortality prior to discharge, were examined using multivariable logistic regression.</p>

<p><strong>RESULTS: </strong>Among 3,521 infants who received CPR, 2,080 (59%) died before discharge, with 25% mortality during CPR and 40% within 24 hours. Mortality prior to discharge occurred in 65% and 47% of cases in the NICU and PICU, respectively. Factors most strongly independently associated with pre-discharge mortality were vasoactive agent before CPR (adjusted odds ratio (aOR): 2.77, 95% confidence interval (CI) 2.15-3.58), initial pulseless condition (aOR: 2.38, 95% CI 1.46-3.86) or development of pulselessness (aOR: 2.36, 95% CI 1.78-3.12), and NICU location compared with PICU (aOR: 3.85, 95% CI 2.86-5.19). Endotracheal intubation during CPR was associated with decreased odds of pre-discharge mortality (aOR: 0.40, 95% CI 0.33-0.49).</p>

<p><strong>CONCLUSION: </strong>Infants who receive CPR in the intensive care unit experience high mortality rates; identifiable patient, event, and unit factors increase the odds of mortality. Further investigation should explore the association between unit type, resuscitation processes, and mortality.</p>



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