First name
Rachel
Middle name
P
Last name
Berger

Title

The CAPNET multi-center data set for child physical abuse: Rationale, methods and scope.

Year of Publication

2022

Number of Pages

105653

Date Published

06/2022

ISSN Number

1873-7757

Abstract

BACKGROUND: The pediatric subspecialty of Child Abuse Pediatrics (CAP) was certified by the American Board of Medical Subspecialties in 2006. Relative to its impact on pediatric health, CAP-focused research has been relatively under-funded. Multi-center networks related to CAP-focused research have made important advances, but have been limited in scope and duration. CAPNET is multi-center network whose mission is to support CAP-focused research.

OBJECTIVE: To describe the rationale, development, and scope of the CAPNET research network infrastructure, the CAPNET data registry and associated data resources.

METHODS: Based on existing priorities for CAP-focused research, we used consensus building and iterative testing to establish inclusion criteria, common data elements, data quality assurance, and data sharing processes for children with concerns of physical abuse.

RESULTS: We describe the rationale, methods and intended scope for the development of the CAPNET research network and data registry. CAPNET is currently abstracting data for children <10 years (120 months) old who undergo sub-specialty evaluation for physical abuse at 10 US pediatric centers (approximately 4000 evaluations/year total) using an online data capture form. Data domains include: demographics; visit timing and providers, medical/social history, presentation, examination findings, laboratory and radiographic testing, diagnoses, outcomes, and data for contact children. We describe the methods and criteria for collecting and validating data which are broadly available to CAP investigators.

CONCLUSIONS: CAPNET represents a new data resource for the CAP research community and will increase the quantity and quality of CAP-focused research.

DOI

10.1016/j.chiabu.2022.105653

Alternate Title

Child Abuse Negl

PMID

35779985

Title

Child Abuse Pediatrics Research Network: The CAPNET Core Data Project.

Year of Publication

2022

Date Published

07/2022

ISSN Number

1876-2867

Abstract

OBJECTIVE: Examine the epidemiology of subspecialty physical abuse evaluations within CAPNET, a multicenter child abuse pediatrics research network.

METHODS: We conducted a cross-sectional study of children <10 years old who underwent an evaluation (in-person or remote) by a child abuse pediatrician (CAP) due to concerns for physical abuse at ten CAPNET hospital systems from February 2021 through December 2021.

RESULTS: Among 3667 patients with 3721 encounters, 69.4% were < 3 years old; 44.3% < 1 year old, 59.1% male; 27.1% Black; 57.8% White, 17.0% Hispanic; and 71.0 % had public insurance. The highest level of care was outpatient/emergency department in 60.7%, inpatient unit in 28.0% and intensive care in 11.4%. CAPS performed 79.1% in-person consultations and 20.9% remote consultations. Overall, the most frequent injuries were bruises (35.2%), fractures (29.0%), and traumatic brain injuries (TBI) (16.2%). Abdominal (1.2%) and spine injuries (1.6%) were uncommon. TBI was diagnosed in 30.6% of infants but only 8.4% of 1-year old children. In 68.2% of cases a report to child protective services (CPS) was made prior to CAP consultation; in 12.4% a report was made after CAP consultation. CAPs reported no concern for abuse in 43.0% of cases and mild / intermediate concern in 22.3%. Only 14.2% were categorized as definite abuse.

CONCLUSION: Most children in CAPNET were <3 years old with bruises, fractures, or intracranial injuries. CPS reports were frequently made prior to CAP consultation. CAPs had a low level of concern for abuse in majority of cases.

DOI

10.1016/j.acap.2022.07.001

Alternate Title

Acad Pediatr

PMID

35840086

Title

A standardized definition of near-fatal child maltreatment: Results of a multidisciplinary Delphi process.

Year of Publication

2020

Number of Pages

104893

Date Published

2020 Dec 26

ISSN Number

1873-7757

Abstract

<p><strong>BACKGROUND: </strong>The 2016 Presidential Commission to Eliminate Child Abuse and Neglect Fatalities identified systematic review of all cases of near-fatal child maltreatment as a necessary step towards prevention of child maltreatment fatalities. A critical barrier to adoption of this recommendation is the lack of a standard definition of "near-fatality" in the context of suspected child maltreatment.</p>

<p><strong>OBJECTIVE: </strong>To develop a consensus definition of near-fatal child maltreatment to be used in practice, policy, and research.</p>

<p><strong>PARTICIPANTS AND SETTING: </strong>A multidisciplinary expert panel of 23 individuals from across the U.S. including child abuse pediatricians, pediatric intensivists, pediatric emergency medicine physicians, child welfare administrators, child welfare researchers, and child injury/fatality researchers.</p>

<p><strong>METHODS: </strong>A modified Delphi process reflecting an iterative process of 3 rounds of surveys of expert opinion, statistical summary of survey response, and feedback of summary statistics. Consensus was defined as 75 % of panelists ranking an element as required (≥80 on a scale of 0-100) to meet a definition of near-fatality (75th% threshold).</p>

<p><strong>RESULTS: </strong>Experts defined near-fatal child maltreatment as life-threatening cardiopulmonary dysfunction directly attributable to suspected abuse or neglect as evidenced by (a) respiratory insufficiency/failure requiring intubation and mechanical ventilation, (b) respiratory insufficiency/failure requiring medications to reverse effects of toxic ingestion, or (c) cardiac arrhythmia with/without cardiopulmonary resuscitation (CPR).</p>

<p><strong>CONCLUSIONS: </strong>A consensus definition of near-fatal child maltreatment should be introduced in child protective services processes and in child fatality/near-fatality reviews to improve our ability to identify, review, and respond to trends in near-fatal child maltreatment at local, regional, and national levels.</p>

DOI

10.1016/j.chiabu.2020.104893

Alternate Title

Child Abuse Negl

PMID

33373847

Title

Occult head injuries in infants evaluated for physical abuse.

Year of Publication

2020

Number of Pages

104431

Date Published

2020 Mar 03

ISSN Number

1873-7757

Abstract

<p><strong>BACKGROUND: </strong>Abusive head injuries in infants may be occult but clinically or forensically important. Data conflict regarding yield of neuroimaging in detecting occult head injuries in infants evaluated for physical abuse, with prior studies identifying yields of 4.3-37.3 %.</p>

<p><strong>OBJECTIVES: </strong>(1) To quantify yield of computed tomography or magnetic resonance imaging in identification of occult head injuries in infants with concerns for physical abuse and (2) to evaluate risk factors for occult head injuries.</p>

<p><strong>PARTICIPANTS AND SETTING: </strong>We conducted a retrospective, stratified, random systematic sample of 529 infants &lt;12 months evaluated for physical abuse at 4 urban children's hospitals in the United States from 2008-2012. Infants with signs or symptoms suggesting head injury or skull fracture on plain radiography (N = 359), and infants without neuroimaging (N = 1) were excluded.</p>

<p><strong>METHODS: </strong>Sampling weights were applied to calculate proportions of infants with occult head injuries. We evaluated for associations between hypothesized risk factors (age &lt;6 months, rib or extremity fracture, facial bruising) and occult head injury using chi-square tests.</p>

<p><strong>RESULTS: </strong>Of 169 neurologically normal infants evaluated for abuse, occult head injury was identified in 6.5 % (95 % CI: 2.6, 15.8). Infants &lt;6 months were at higher risk (9.7 %; 95 % CI: 3.6, 23.3) than infants 6-12 months (1.0 %; 95 % CI: 1.3, 20.2). Rib fracture, extremity fracture and facial bruising were not associated with occult head injury.</p>

<p><strong>CONCLUSIONS: </strong>Occult head injuries were less frequent than previously reported in some studies, but were identified in 1 in 10 infants &lt;6 months. Clinicians should have a low threshold to obtain neuroimaging in young infants with concern for abuse.</p>

DOI

10.1016/j.chiabu.2020.104431

Alternate Title

Child Abuse Negl

PMID

32143091

Title

Use and Utility of Skeletal Surveys to Evaluate for Occult Fractures in Young Injured Children.

Year of Publication

2018

Date Published

2018 Aug 16

ISSN Number

1876-2867

Abstract

<p><strong>OBJECTIVES: </strong>To describe the percentage and characteristics of children &lt;24 months old with non-motor vehicle crash (non-MVC)-related injuries who 1) undergo a skeletal survey and 2) have occult fractures.</p>

<p><strong>METHODS: </strong>We performed a retrospective chart review of a stratified, systematic random sample of 1769 children &lt;24 months old with non-MVC-related bruises, burns, fractures, abdominal injuries, and head injuries at 4 children's hospitals from 2008-2012. Sampling weights were assigned to each child to allow for representative hospital-level population estimates. Logistic regression models tested for associations between patient characteristics with outcomes of skeletal survey completion and occult fracture identification.</p>

<p><strong>RESULTS: </strong>Skeletal surveys were performed in 46.3% of 0-5 month olds, 21.1% of 6-11 month olds, 8.0% of 12-17 month olds and 6.2% of 18-24 month olds. Skeletal surveys were most performed in children with traumatic brain injuries (64.7%) and rib fractures (100%) and least in burns (2.1%) and minor head injuries (4.4%). In adjusted analyses, increased age, private insurance and reported history of accidental trauma were associated with decreased skeletal survey use (all p≤0.001). The prevalence of occult fractures on skeletal survey ranged from 24.6% in infants 0-5 month olds to 3.6% in 18-24 month olds, and varied within age categories based on the presenting injury (p&lt;0.001).</p>

<p><strong>CONCLUSIONS: </strong>The high rate of occult fractures in infants 0-5 months old underscores the importance of increasing the use of skeletal surveys in this population. Further research is needed to identify the injury characteristics of older infants and toddlers most at risk for occult fractures.</p>

DOI

10.1016/j.acap.2018.08.007

Alternate Title

Acad Pediatr

PMID

30121318

Title

Cervical Spine Imaging and Injuries in Young Children With Non-Motor Vehicle Crash-Associated Traumatic Brain Injury.

Year of Publication

2018

Date Published

2018 Feb 15

ISSN Number

1535-1815

Abstract

<p><strong>OBJECTIVES: </strong>The aim of this study was to evaluate cervical magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) and computed tomography (CT) practices and cervical spine injuries among young children with non-motor vehicle crash (MVC)-associated traumatic brain injury (TBI).</p>

<p><strong>METHODS: </strong>We performed a retrospective study of a stratified, systematic random sample of 328 children younger than 2 years with non-MVC-associated TBI at 4 urban children's hospitals from 2008 to 2012. We defined TBI etiology as accidental, indeterminate, or abuse. We reported the proportion, by etiology, who underwent cervical MRI or CT, and had cervical abnormalities identified.</p>

<p><strong>RESULTS: </strong>Of children with non-MVC-associated TBI, 39.4% had abusive head trauma (AHT), 52.2% had accidental TBI, and in 8.4% the etiology was indeterminate. Advanced cervical imaging (CT and/or MRI) was obtained in 19.1% of all children with TBI, with 9.3% undergoing MRI and 11.7% undergoing CT. Cervical MRI or CT was performed in 30.9% of children with AHT, in 11.7% of accidental TBI, and in 10.7% of indeterminate-cause TBI. Among children imaged by MRI or CT, abnormal cervical findings were found in 22.1%, including 31.3% of children with AHT, 7.1% of children with accidental TBI, and 0% of children with indeterminate-cause TBI. Children with more severe head injuries who underwent cervical imaging were more likely to have cervical injuries.</p>

<p><strong>CONCLUSIONS: </strong>Abusive head trauma victims appear to be at increased risk of cervical injuries. Prospective studies are needed to define the risk of cervical injury in children with TBI concerning for AHT and to inform development of imaging guidelines.</p>

DOI

10.1097/PEC.0000000000001455

Alternate Title

Pediatr Emerg Care

PMID

29461428

Title

Preventing severe and fatal child maltreatment: making the case for the expanded use and integration of data.

Year of Publication

2013

Number of Pages

59-75

Date Published

2013

ISSN Number

0009-4021

Abstract

<p>In this article we examine risk factors for severe and fatal child maltreatment. These factors emerge from studies based on different data sources, including official child maltreatment data, emergency department and hospitalization data, death certificates, and data from child death review teams. The empirical literature reflects a growing effort to overcome the measurement uncertainties of any one individual data system. After review and reflection upon what is known, we consider how integrating this information can advance efforts to protect children, providing examples where the use and linkage of multiple sources of data may enhance surveillance, improve front-end decisionmaking, and support cost-effective research and evaluation.</p>

Alternate Title

Child Welfare

PMID

24199323

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