First name
Theoklis
Last name
Zaoutis

Title

Treatment of extended-spectrum β-lactamase-producing Enterobacteriaceae (ESBLs) infections: what have we learned until now?

Year of Publication

2018

Date Published

2018

ISSN Number

2046-1402

Abstract

The spread of extended-spectrum β-lactamase (ESBL)-producing Enterobacteriaceae (ESBL-PE) has dramatically increased worldwide, and this "evolving crisis" is currently regarded as one of the most important public health threats. The growing problem of ESBL-PE antimicrobial resistance seems to have a dual face between "Scylla and Charybdis": on one hand the potential for rapid spread and dissemination of resistance mechanisms and on the other hand the injudicious overuse of antimicrobial agents and the inadequate infection control measures, especially in the health-care setting. Given the World Health Organization's warning against a "post antibiotic era", health-care providers are at a critical standpoint to find a "balance" between safe and effective ESBL-PE treatment and avoidance of inducing further resistance mechanisms. The aim of the review is to summarize the updated published knowledge in an attempt to answer basic everyday clinical questions on how to proceed to effective and the best ESBL-PE treatment options based on the existing published data.

DOI

10.12688/f1000research.14822.1

Alternate Title

F1000Res

PMID

30228863

Title

2-Year Outcomes After Complete or Staged Procedure for Tetralogy of Fallot in Neonates.

Year of Publication

2019

Number of Pages

1570-1579

Date Published

2019 Sep 24

ISSN Number

1558-3597

Abstract

BACKGROUND: There is ongoing debate about the best strategy to treat patients with tetralogy of Fallot who are symptomatic in the neonatal period.

OBJECTIVES: The aim of this study was to compare the outcomes of complete versus staged surgery (i.e., initial palliative procedure for possible later complete repair).

METHODS: A retrospective cohort study was performed using the Pediatric Health Information System database, including patients who underwent complete or staged tetralogy of Fallot repair prior to 30 days of age. The primary outcome was death during 2-year follow-up after the initial procedure. Inverse probability-weighted Cox and logistic regression models were used to examine the association between surgical approach group and mortality while accounting for patient- and hospital-level factors. Causal mediation analyses examined the role of intermediate variables.

RESULTS: A total of 2,363 patients were included (1,032 complete and 1,331 staged). There were 239 deaths. Complete neonatal repair was associated with a significantly higher risk for mortality during the 2-year follow-up period (hazard ratio: 1.51; 95% confidence interval: 1.05 to 2.06), between 7 and 30 days after the initial procedure (hazard ratio: 2.29; 95% confidence interval: 1.18 to 4.41), and during the initial hospital admission (odds ratio: 1.72; 95% confidence interval: 1.15 to 2.62). Post-operative cardiac complications were more common in the complete repair group and mediated the differences in 30-day and 2-year mortality.

CONCLUSIONS: Complete surgical repair for neonates with tetralogy of Fallot is associated with a significantly higher risk for early and 2-year mortality compared with the staged approach, after accounting for patient and hospital characteristics. Post-operative cardiac complications mediated these findings.

DOI

10.1016/j.jacc.2019.05.057

Alternate Title

J. Am. Coll. Cardiol.

PMID

31537267

Title

Healthcare-associated Infections-Can We Do Better?

Year of Publication

2021

Number of Pages

e305-e309

Date Published

2021 08 01

ISSN Number

1532-0987

DOI

10.1097/INF.0000000000003203

Alternate Title

Pediatr Infect Dis J

PMID

34250978

Title

Potential benefit from the implementation of the Kaiser Permanente neonatal early-onset sepsis calculator on clinical management of neonates with presumed sepsis.

Year of Publication

2021

Date Published

2021 Oct 18

ISSN Number

1432-1076

Abstract

<p>To assess the potential benefit from the implementation of the Kaiser Permanente early-onset sepsis calculator (EOS-C), in terms of antibiotic use and requested laboratory tests, in a network of neonatal intensive care units (NICUs) in Greece, and to determine the incidence of early-onset sepsis (EOS) in Greek NICUs, a prospective surveillance study was conducted in 7 NICUs between April 2018 and June 2019. Data were collected for all newborns ≥ 34&nbsp;weeks' gestation receiving empiric antibiotic therapy within the first 3&nbsp;days of life. The number of live births and positive blood or cerebrospinal fluid cultures within the first 3&nbsp;days of life were used for calculation of EOS incidence. Evaluation of possible impact of implementing the calculator was done by comparing the clinicians' recorded management to the calculator's suggested course of action. The unit-specific incidence of culture-proven EOS ranged between 0 and 2.99/1000 live births. The weighted incidence rate for all 7 units was 1.8/1000 live births. Management of EOS guided by the calculator could lead to a reduction of empiric antibiotic initiation up to 100% for the group of "well-appearing" neonates and 86% for "equivocal," lowering exposure to antibiotics by 4.2 and 3.8&nbsp;days per neonate, respectively. Laboratory tests for blood cultures drawn could be reduced by up to 100% and 68%, respectively. Sensitivity of the EOS-C in identifying neonates with positive blood cultures was high.Conclusion: Management strategies based on the Kaiser Permanente neonatal sepsis calculator may significantly reduce antibiotic exposure, invasive diagnostic procedures, and hospitalizations in late preterm and term neonates. What is Known: • Neonates are frequently exposed to antibiotics for presumed EOS. • The Kaiser Permanente sepsis calculator can reduce antibiotic exposure in neonates.. What is New: • EOS calculator can be an effective antibiotic stewardship tool in a high prescribing country and can reduce invasive diagnostic procedures and mother-baby separation. • Incidence of EOS in Greece is higher compared to other European countries.</p>

DOI

10.1007/s00431-021-04282-x

Alternate Title

Eur J Pediatr

PMID

34664107

Title

Clinical Practice Guideline by the Pediatric Infectious Diseases Society and the Infectious Diseases Society of America: 2021 Guideline on Diagnosis and Management of Acute Hematogenous Osteomyelitis in Pediatrics.

Year of Publication

2021

Date Published

2021 Aug 05

ISSN Number

2048-7207

Abstract

<p>This clinical practice guideline for the diagnosis and treatment of acute hematogenous osteomyelitis (AHO) in children was developed by a multidisciplinary panel representing Pediatric Infectious Diseases Society (PIDS) and the Infectious Diseases Society of America (IDSA). This guideline is intended for use by healthcare professionals who care for children with AHO, including specialists in pediatric infectious diseases, orthopedics, emergency care physicians, hospitalists, and any clinicians and healthcare providers caring for these patients. The panel's recommendations for the diagnosis and treatment of AHO are based upon evidence derived from topic-specific systematic literature reviews. Summarized below are the recommendations for the diagnosis and treatment of AHO in children. The panel followed a systematic process used in the development of other IDSA and PIDS clinical practice guidelines, which included a standardized methodology for rating the certainty of the evidence and strength of recommendation using the GRADE (Grading of Recommendations Assessment, Development and Evaluation) approach. A detailed description of background, methods, evidence summary and rationale that support each recommendation, and knowledge gaps can be found online in the full text.</p>

DOI

10.1093/jpids/piab027

Alternate Title

J Pediatric Infect Dis Soc

PMID

34350458

Title

Weighing the Risks of Perimyocarditis With the Benefits of SARS-CoV-2 mRNA Vaccination in Adolescents.

Year of Publication

2021

Date Published

2021 Jul 16

ISSN Number

2048-7207

DOI

10.1093/jpids/piab061

Alternate Title

J Pediatric Infect Dis Soc

PMID

34270752

Title

Intrapartum Group B Streptococcal Prophylaxis and Childhood Allergic Disorders.

Year of Publication

2021

Date Published

2021 Apr 08

ISSN Number

1098-4275

Abstract

<p><strong>OBJECTIVES: </strong>To determine if maternal intrapartum group B (GBS) antibiotic prophylaxis is associated with increased risk of childhood asthma, eczema, food allergy, or allergic rhinitis.</p>

<p><strong>METHODS: </strong>Retrospective cohort study of 14 046 children. GBS prophylaxis was defined as administration of intravenous penicillin, ampicillin, cefazolin, clindamycin, or vancomycin to the mother, ≥4 hours before delivery. Composite primary outcome was asthma, eczema, or food allergy diagnosis within 5 years of age, identified by diagnosis codes and appropriate medication prescription. Allergic rhinitis was defined by using diagnostic codes only and analyzed as a separate outcome. Analysis was a priori stratified by delivery mode and conducted by using Cox proportional hazards model adjusted for multiple confounders and covariates. Secondary analyses, restricted to children retained in cohort at 5 years' age, were conducted by using multivariate logistic regression.</p>

<p><strong>RESULTS: </strong>GBS prophylaxis was not associated with increased incidence of composite outcome among infants delivered vaginally (hazard ratio: 1.13, 95% confidence interval [CI]: 0.95-1.33) or by cesarean delivery (hazard ratio: 1.08, 95% CI: 0.88-1.32). At 5 years of age, among 10 404 children retained in the study, GBS prophylaxis was not associated with the composite outcome in vaginal (odds ratio: 1.21, 95% CI: 0.96-1.52) or cesarean delivery (odds ratio: 1.17, 95% CI: 0.88-1.56) cohorts. Outcomes of asthma, eczema, food allergy, separately, and allergic rhinitis were also not associated with GBS prophylaxis.</p>

<p><strong>CONCLUSIONS: </strong>Intrapartum GBS prophylaxis was not associated with subsequent diagnosis of asthma, eczema, food allergy, or allergic rhinitis in the first 5 years of age.</p>

DOI

10.1542/peds.2020-012187

Alternate Title

Pediatrics

PMID

33833072

Title

Reducing Duration of Antibiotic Use for Presumed Neonatal Early-Onset Sepsis in Greek NICUs. A "Low-Hanging Fruit" Approach.

Year of Publication

2021

Date Published

2021 Mar 09

ISSN Number

2079-6382

Abstract

Antibiotics are commonly prescribed in Neonatal Intensive Care Units (NICU), where stewardship interventions are challenging. Lowering antibiotic consumption is desperately needed in Greece, a country with high antibiotic resistance rates. We sought to assess the effectiveness of a low-cost and -resource intervention to reduce antibiotic use in Greek NICUs implementing a "low-hanging fruit" approach. A prospective quasi-experimental study was conducted in 15/17 public NICUs in Greece (9/2016-06/2019). The intervention selected was discontinuation of antibiotics within 5 days for neonates with gestational age ≥ 37 weeks, no documented signs or symptoms of sepsis, CRP ≤ 10 mg/L and negative cultures within 3 days of antibiotic initiation. Impact was evaluated by the percentage of discontinued regimens by day 5, length of therapy (LOT) and stay. Trends of antibiotic consumption were assessed with days of therapy (DOT) per 1000 patient-days. Overall, there was a 9% increase ( = 0.003) of antibiotic discontinuation in ≤5 days. In total, 7/13 (53.8%) units showed a ≥10% increase. Overall, 615 days on antibiotics per 1000 patients were saved. Interrupted time-series analysis established a declining trend in DOT/1000 patient-days relative to the pre-intervention trend ( = 0.002); a monthly decrease rate of 28.96 DOT/1000 patient-days ( = 0.001, 95%CI [-45.33, -12.60]). The intervention had no impact on antibiotic choice. Antibiotic use was successfully reduced in Greek NICUs using a "low-hanging fruit" approach. In resource-limited settings, similar targeted stewardship interventions can be applied.

DOI

10.3390/antibiotics10030275

Alternate Title

Antibiotics (Basel)

Title

Comparative effectiveness of ceftolozane/tazobactam against pediatric gram-negative drug-resistant isolates.

Year of Publication

2021

Number of Pages

1-6

Date Published

2021 Mar 01

ISSN Number

1973-9478

Abstract

<p>Ceftolozane/tazobactam (C/T), a cephalosporin/beta-lactamase inhibitor combination, was evaluated vs. 10 comparators against 299 pediatric extended-spectrum-cephalosporin-resistant or carbapenem-resistant (ESC-R/CR) Gram-negative Enterobacteriaceae from three freestanding pediatric centers. Isolates were from urine or other sterile sites of children and adolescents through 21 years of age. Susceptibilities were assayed by microbroth dilution via custom Sensititre plates (Thermo Fisher Scientific). Susceptibility was determined using the Sensititre Vizion® system (Thermo Fisher Scientific). Susceptibility breakpoint criteria were those of the Clinical and Laboratory Standards Institute (CLSI) for 2017, except for colistin (EUCAST 2019). Overall, 87.5% isolates were C/T susceptible (MIC ≤2 μg/ml; MIC 0.25/4 μg/ml). Susceptibility to C/T was detected more frequently as compared to all other antimicrobials tested except for colistin (95.4%) and meropenem (97.4%). Percent susceptibility to C/T was high for (91%) and . (73.3%). C/T demonstrated good activity and high potency against most beta-lactam resistant pediatric Enterobacteriaceae from three geographically diverse U.S. regions.</p>

DOI

10.1080/1120009X.2021.1888030

Alternate Title

J Chemother

PMID

33645447

WATCH THIS PAGE

Subscription is not available for this page.