First name
Robin
Last name
Ortiz

Title

County-Level Maternal Vulnerability and Preterm Birth in the US.

Year of Publication

2023

Number of Pages

e2315306

Date Published

05/2023

ISSN Number

2574-3805

Abstract

IMPORTANCE: Appreciation for the effects of neighborhood conditions and community factors on perinatal health is increasing. However, community-level indices specific to maternal health and associations with preterm birth (PTB) have not been assessed.

OBJECTIVE: To examine the association of the Maternal Vulnerability Index (MVI), a novel county-level index designed to quantify maternal vulnerability to adverse health outcomes, with PTB.

DESIGN, SETTING, AND PARTICIPANTS: This retrospective cohort study used US Vital Statistics data from January 1 to December 31, 2018. Participants included 3 659 099 singleton births at 22 plus 0/7 to 44 plus 6/7 weeks of gestation born in the US. Analyses were conducted from December 1, 2021, through March 31, 2023.

EXPOSURE: The MVI, a composite measure of 43 area-level indicators, categorized into 6 themes reflecting physical, social, and health care landscapes. Overall MVI and theme were stratified by quintile (very low to very high) by maternal county of residence.

MAIN OUTCOMES AND MEASURES: The primary outcome was PTB (gestational age <37 weeks). Secondary outcomes were PTB categories: extreme (gestational age ≤28 weeks), very (gestational age 29-31 weeks), moderate (gestational age 32-33 weeks), and late (gestational age 34-36 weeks). Multivariable logistic regression quantified associations of MVI, overall and by theme, with PTB, overall and by PTB category.

RESULTS: Among 3 659 099 births, 298 847 (8.2%) were preterm (male, 51.1%; female, 48.9%). Maternal race and ethnicity included 0.8% American Indian or Alaska Native, 6.8% Asian or Pacific Islander, 23.6% Hispanic, 14.5% non-Hispanic Black, 52.1% non-Hispanic White, and 2.2% with more than 1 race. Compared with full-term births, MVI was higher for PTBs across all themes. Very high MVI was associated with increased PTB in unadjusted (odds ratio [OR], 1.50 [95% CI, 1.45-1.56]) and adjusted (OR, 1.07 [95% CI, 1.01-1.13]) analyses. In adjusted analyses of PTB categories, MVI had the largest association with extreme PTB (adjusted OR, 1.18 [95% CI, 1.07-1.29]). Higher MVI in the themes of physical health, mental health and substance abuse, and general health care remained associated with PTB overall in adjusted models. While the physical health and socioeconomic determinant themes were associated with extreme PTB, physical health, mental health and substance abuse, and general health care themes were associated with late PTB.

CONCLUSIONS AND RELEVANCE: The findings of this cohort study suggest that MVI was associated with PTB even after adjustment for individual-level confounders. The MVI is a useful measure for county-level PTB risk that may have policy implications for counties working to lower preterm rates and improve perinatal outcomes.

DOI

10.1001/jamanetworkopen.2023.15306

Alternate Title

JAMA Netw Open

PMID

37227724
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No
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Title

Describing the Health Status of Women Experiencing Violence or Abuse: An Observational Study Using Claims Data.

Year of Publication

2022

Number of Pages

21501319221074121

Date Published

2022 Jan-Dec

ISSN Number

2150-1327

Abstract

<p><strong>INTRODUCTION: </strong>Violence against women (VAW) can result in long-term and varied sequela for survivors, making it difficult to evaluate healthcare intervention. This study seeks to improve understanding of the healthcare experiences of women survivors prior to a violence-related diagnosis, allowing healthcare systems to better design strategies to meet the needs of this population.</p>

<p><strong>METHODS: </strong>Using population-based data from 2016 to 2019, this cross-sectional observational study presents healthcare spending, utilization, and diagnostic patterns of privately insured women, age 18 or older, in the 10-months prior to an episode of care for a documented experience of violence (DEV).</p>

<p><strong>RESULTS: </strong>Of 12 624 764 women meeting enrollment criteria, 10 980 women had DEV. This group had higher general medical complexity, despite being 10 years younger than the comparison group (mean age 32.7 vs 43.5). These relationships held up when comparing participants in each cohort by age. Additional key findings including higher numbers of medical visits across clinical settings and higher total cost ($10 138-$4585).</p>

<p><strong>CONCLUSIONS: </strong>The study utilized population-based data, to describe specific areas of health and medical cost for women with DEV. Increased medical complexity and utilization patterns among survivors broaden the understanding of the health profiles and healthcare touchpoints of survivors to inform and optimize strategies for medical system engagement and resource allocation for this public health crisis.</p>

DOI

10.1177/21501319221074121

Alternate Title

J Prim Care Community Health

PMID

35345928
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Title

A Content Analysis Of US Sanctuary Immigration Policies: Implications For Research In Social Determinants Of Health.

Year of Publication

2021

Number of Pages

1145-1153

Date Published

2021 Jul

ISSN Number

1544-5208

Abstract

<p>Restrictive immigration policies are important social determinants of health, but less is known about the health implications and health-related content of protective immigration policies, which may also represent critical determinants of health. We conducted a content analysis of types, themes, and health-related language in 328 "sanctuary" policies enacted between 2009 and 2017 in the United States. Sanctuary policies were introduced in thirty-two states and Washington, D.C., most frequently in 2014 and 2017. More than two-thirds of policies (67.6&nbsp;percent) contained language related to health, including direct references to access to services. Health-related themes commonly co-occurred with language related to supporting immigrants in communities, including themes of antidiscrimination, inclusion, trust, and privacy. Our work provides foundational, nuanced data about the scope and nature of sanctuary policies that can inform future research exploring the impacts of these policies on health and health care.</p>

DOI

10.1377/hlthaff.2021.00097

Alternate Title

Health Aff (Millwood)

PMID

34228526
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