First name
Atheendar
Middle name
S
Last name
Venkataramani

Title

A Content Analysis Of US Sanctuary Immigration Policies: Implications For Research In Social Determinants Of Health.

Year of Publication

2021

Number of Pages

1145-1153

Date Published

2021 Jul

ISSN Number

1544-5208

Abstract

<p>Restrictive immigration policies are important social determinants of health, but less is known about the health implications and health-related content of protective immigration policies, which may also represent critical determinants of health. We conducted a content analysis of types, themes, and health-related language in 328 "sanctuary" policies enacted between 2009 and 2017 in the United States. Sanctuary policies were introduced in thirty-two states and Washington, D.C., most frequently in 2014 and 2017. More than two-thirds of policies (67.6&nbsp;percent) contained language related to health, including direct references to access to services. Health-related themes commonly co-occurred with language related to supporting immigrants in communities, including themes of antidiscrimination, inclusion, trust, and privacy. Our work provides foundational, nuanced data about the scope and nature of sanctuary policies that can inform future research exploring the impacts of these policies on health and health care.</p>

DOI

10.1377/hlthaff.2021.00097

Alternate Title

Health Aff (Millwood)

PMID

34228526

Title

Association of WIC Participation and Electronic Benefits Transfer Implementation.

Year of Publication

2021

Date Published

2021 Mar 29

ISSN Number

2168-6211

Abstract

<p><strong>Importance: </strong>The Special Supplemental Nutrition Program for Women, Infants, and Children (WIC) is an important source of nutritional support and education for women and children living in poverty; although WIC participation confers clear health benefits, only 50% of eligible women and children currently receive WIC. In 2010, Congress mandated that states transition WIC benefits by 2020 from paper vouchers to electronic benefits transfer (EBT) cards, which are more convenient to use, are potentially less stigmatizing, and may improve WIC participation.</p>

<p><strong>Objective: </strong>To estimate the state-level association between transition from paper vouchers to EBT and subsequent WIC participation.</p>

<p><strong>Design, Setting, and Participants: </strong>This economic evaluation of state-level WIC monthly benefit summary administrative data regarding participation between October 1, 2014, and November 30, 2019, compared states that did and did not implement WIC EBT during this time period. Difference-in-differences regression modeling allowed associations to vary by time since policy implementation and included stratified analyses for key subgroups (pregnant and postpartum women, infants younger than 1 year, and children aged 1-4 years). All models included dummy variables denoting state, year, and month as covariates. Data analyses were performed between March 1 and June 15, 2020.</p>

<p><strong>Exposures: </strong>Statewide transition from WIC paper vouchers to WIC EBT cards, specified by month and year.</p>

<p><strong>Main Outcomes and Measures: </strong>Monthly number of state residents enrolled in WIC.</p>

<p><strong>Results: </strong>A total of 36 states implemented WIC EBT before or during the study period. EBT and non-EBT states had similar baseline rates of poverty and food insecurity. Three years after statewide WIC EBT implementation, WIC participation increased by 7.78% (95% CI, 3.58%-12.15%) in exposed states compared with unexposed states. In stratified analyses, WIC participation increased by 7.22% among pregnant and postpartum women (95% CI, 2.54%-12.12%), 4.96% among infants younger than 1 year (95% CI, 0.95%-9.12%), and 9.12% among children aged 1 to 4 years (95% CI, 3.19%-15.39%; P for interaction = .20). Results were robust to adjustment for state unemployment and poverty rates, population, and Medicaid expansion status.</p>

<p><strong>Conclusions and Relevance: </strong>In this study, the transition from paper vouchers to WIC EBT was associated with a significant and sustained increase in enrollment. Interventions that simplify the process of redeeming benefits may be critical for addressing low rates of enrollment in WIC and other government benefit programs.</p>

DOI

10.1001/jamapediatrics.2020.6973

Alternate Title

JAMA Pediatr

PMID

33779712

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