First name
Eili
Middle name
Y
Last name
Klein

Title

Administration of a β-lactam Prior to Vancomycin as the First Dose of Antibiotic Therapy Improves Survival in Patients with Bloodstream Infections.

Year of Publication

2021

Date Published

2021 Oct 04

ISSN Number

1537-6591

Abstract

OBJECTIVE: Prompt initiation of antibiotic therapy improves the survival of patients with bloodstream infections (BSI). We sought to determine if the sequence of administration of the first dose of antibiotic therapy (i.e., β-lactam or vancomycin, if both cannot be administered simultaneously) impacts early mortality for patients with BSI.

METHODS: We conducted a multicenter, observational study of patients ≥13 years with BSIs to evaluate the association of the sequence of antibiotic administration with 7-day mortality using inverse probability of treatment weighting (IPTW) incorporating propensity scores. Propensity scores were generated based on: demographics, Pitt bacteremia score, ICU status, highest lactate, highest WBC count, Charlson Comorbidity index, severe immunocompromise, administration of active empiric therapy, combination therapy, and time from emergency department arrival to first antibiotic dose.

RESULTS: Of 3,376 eligible patients, 2,685 (79.5%) received a β-lactam and 691 (20.5%) received vancomycin as their initial antibiotic. In the IPTW cohort, exposed and unexposed patients were similar on all baseline variables. Administration of a β-lactam agent prior to vancomycin protected against 7-day mortality (aOR 0.48 (95% CI: 0.33-0.69)]. Similar results were observed when evaluating 48-hour mortality (aOR 0.45 [95% CI: 0.24-0.83]). Administration of vancomycin prior to a β-lactam was not associated with improved survival in the subgroup of 524 patients with methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus BSI (aOR 0.93 [95% CI: 0.33-2.63]).

CONCLUSIONS: For ill-appearing patients likely to be experiencing a BSI, prioritizing administration of a β-lactam over vancomycin may reduce early mortality, underscoring the significant impact of a relatively simple practice change on improving patient survival.

DOI

10.1093/cid/ciab865

Alternate Title

Clin Infect Dis

PMID

34606585

Title

COVID-19 Research Agenda for Healthcare Epidemiology.

Year of Publication

2021

Number of Pages

1-81

Date Published

2021 Jan 25

ISSN Number

1559-6834

Abstract

<p>This SHEA white paper identifies knowledge gaps and challenges in healthcare epidemiology research related to COVID-19 with a focus on core principles of healthcare epidemiology. These gaps, revealed during the worst phases of the COVID-19 pandemic, are described in 10 sections: epidemiology, outbreak investigation, surveillance, isolation precaution practices, personal protective equipment (PPE), environmental contamination and disinfection, drug and supply shortages, antimicrobial stewardship, healthcare personnel (HCP) occupational safety, and return to work policies. Each section highlights three critical healthcare epidemiology research questions with detailed description provided in supplemental materials. This research agenda calls for translational studies from laboratory-based basic science research to well-designed, large-scale studies and health outcomes research. Research gaps and challenges related to nursing homes and social disparities are included. Collaborations across various disciplines, expertise and across diverse geographic locations will be critical.</p>

DOI

10.1017/ice.2021.25

Alternate Title

Infect Control Hosp Epidemiol

PMID

33487199

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