First name
Julianne
Middle name
E
Last name
Burns

Title

Factors Associated With COVID-19 Disease Severity in US Children and Adolescents.

Year of Publication

2021

Number of Pages

603-610

Date Published

2021 10

ISSN Number

1553-5606

Abstract

<p><strong>BACKGROUND: </strong>Little is known about the clinical factors associated with COVID-19 disease severity in children and adolescents.</p>

<p><strong>METHODS: </strong>We conducted a retrospective cohort study across 45 US children's hospitals between April 2020 to September 2020 of pediatric patients discharged with a primary diagnosis of COVID-19. We assessed factors associated with hospitalization and factors associated with clinical severity (eg, admission to inpatient floor, admission to intensive care unit [ICU], admission to ICU with mechanical ventilation, shock, death) among those hospitalized.</p>

<p><strong>RESULTS: </strong>Among 19,976 COVID-19 encounters, 15,913 (79.7%) patients were discharged from the emergency department (ED) and 4063 (20.3%) were hospitalized. The clinical severity distribution among those hospitalized was moderate (3222, 79.3%), severe (431, 11.3%), and very severe (380, 9.4%). Factors associated with hospitalization vs discharge from the ED included private payor insurance (adjusted odds ratio [aOR],1.16; 95% CI, 1.1-1.3), obesity/type 2 diabetes mellitus (type 2 DM) (aOR, 10.4; 95% CI, 8.9-13.3), asthma (aOR, 1.4; 95% CI, 1.3-1.6), cardiovascular disease, (aOR, 5.0; 95% CI, 4.3- 5.8), immunocompromised condition (aOR, 5.9; 95% CI, 5.0-6.7), pulmonary disease (aOR, 5.3; 95% CI, 3.4-8.2), and neurologic disease (aOR, 3.2; 95% CI, 2.7-5.8). Among children and adolescents hospitalized with COVID-19, greater disease severity was associated with Black or other non-White race; age greater than 4 years; and obesity/type 2 DM, cardiovascular, neuromuscular, and pulmonary conditions.</p>

<p><strong>CONCLUSIONS: </strong>Among children and adolescents presenting to US children's hospital EDs with COVID-19, 20% were hospitalized; of these, 21% received care in the ICU. Older children and adolescents had a lower risk for hospitalization but more severe illness when hospitalized. There were differences in disease severity by race and ethnicity and the presence of selected comorbidities. These factors should be taken into consideration when prioritizing mitigation and vaccination strategies.</p>

DOI

10.12788/jhm.3689

Alternate Title

J Hosp Med

PMID

34613896
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Title

Assessment of the impact of inpatient infectious events in pediatric patients with newly diagnosed acute leukemia at Dr. Robert Reid Cabral Children's Hospital, Dominican Republic.

Year of Publication

2020

Number of Pages

e0243795

Date Published

2020

ISSN Number

1932-6203

Abstract

<p>Survival rates for pediatric acute leukemia vary dramatically worldwide. Infections are a leading cause of morbidity and mortality, and the impact is amplified in low and middle-income countries. Defining the epidemiology of infection in a specific health care setting is paramount to developing effective interventions. This study aimed to define the epidemiology of and outcomes from infection in children with acute leukemia treated in a large public pediatric hospital in the Dominican Republic. A retrospective cohort was assembled of children newly diagnosed with acute leukemia between July 1, 2015 to June 30, 2017 at Hospital Infantil Dr. Robert Reid Cabral in Santo Domingo. Patients were identified from the Pediatric Oncology Network Database (PONDTM) and hospital admissions from the Oncology admissions logbook. Medical records and microbiology results were reviewed to identify all inpatient invasive infections. Distance from a child's home to the hospital was determined using ArcGIS by Esri. Infection rates were described in discrete time periods after diagnosis and risk factors for invasive infection were explored using negative binomial regression. Overall, invasive infections were common and a prominent source of death in this cohort. Rates were highest in the first 60 days after diagnosis. Gastroenteritis/colitis, cellulitis, and pneumonia were most frequent, with bacteremia common early on. Multidrug resistant bacteria were prevalent among a small number of positive cultures. In a multivariate negative binomial regression model, age ≥ 10 years and distance from the hospital &gt; 100 km were each protective against invasive infection in the first 180 days after diagnosis, findings that were unexpected and warrant further investigation. Over one-third of patient deaths were related to infection. Interventions aimed at reducing infection should target the first 60 days after diagnosis, improved supportive care inside and outside the hospital, and increased antimicrobial stewardship and infection prevention and control measures.</p>

DOI

10.1371/journal.pone.0243795

Alternate Title

PLoS One

PMID

33320881
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