First name
Jeffrey
Middle name
P
Last name
Jacobs

Title

Fetal growth and gestational age improve outcome predictions in neonatal heart surgery.

Year of Publication

2022

Date Published

05/2022

ISSN Number

1097-685X

Abstract

OBJECTIVE: Current risk adjustment models for congenital heart surgery do not fully incorporate multiple factors unique to neonates such as granular gestational age (GA) and birth weight (BW) z score data. This study sought to develop a Neonatal Risk Adjustment Model for congenital heart surgery to address these deficiencies.

METHODS: Cohort study of neonates undergoing cardiothoracic surgery during the neonatal period captured in the Pediatric Cardiac Critical Care Consortium database between 2014 and 2020. Candidate predictors were included in the model if they were associated with mortality in the univariate analyses. GA and BW z score were both added as multicategory variables. Mortality probabilities were predicted for different GA and BW z scores while keeping all other variables at their mean value.

RESULTS: The C statistic for the mortality model was 0.8097 (95% confidence interval, 0.7942-0.8255) with excellent calibration. Mortality prediction for a neonate at 40 weeks GA and a BW z score 0 to 1 was 3.5% versus 9.8% for the same neonate at 37 weeks GA and a BW z score -2 to -1. For preterm infants the mortality prediction at 34 to 36 weeks with a BW z score 0 to 1 was 10.6%, whereas it was 36.1% for the same infant at <32 weeks with a BW z score of -2 to -1.

CONCLUSIONS: This Neonatal Risk Adjustment Model incorporates more granular data on GA and adds the novel risk factor BW z score. These 2 factors refine mortality predictions compared with traditional risk models. It may be used to compare outcomes across centers for the neonatal population.

DOI

10.1016/j.jtcvs.2022.05.022

Alternate Title

J Thorac Cardiovasc Surg

PMID

35750509

Title

Fifth Annual Pediatric Interagency Registry for Mechanical Circulatory Support (Pedimacs) Report.

Year of Publication

2021

Date Published

2021 Oct 11

ISSN Number

1552-6259

Abstract

<p><strong>BACKGROUND: </strong>The Pediatric Interagency Registry for Mechanical Circulatory Support (Pedimacs) provides detailed information on pediatric patients supported with ventricular assist devices (VADs).</p>

<p><strong>METHODS: </strong>From September 19, 2012 to December 31, 2020 there were 1,229 devices in 1,011 patients reported to the registry from 47 North American Hospitals in patients under 19 years of age.</p>

<p><strong>RESULTS: </strong>Cardiomyopathy was the most common underlying etiology (58%), followed by congenital heart disease (CHD) (25%) and myocarditis (10%). The most common devices implanted were implantable continuous (IC) (n=419, 41%), followed by paracorporeal pulsatile (PP) (n=269, 27%), paracorporeal continuous (PC) (n=263, 26%), and percutaneous (n=53, 5%). Overall, at six months after VAD implantation, 83% had a positive outcome (transplant, explant, or alive on device). The freedom from stroke was highest in IC VADs (93% at 3-months), compared to PP VADs (84% at 3-months) and with PC VADs (75% at 3-months. There were differences in survival by device type with patients on IC VADs having the best overall survival and those on PC having the lowest overall survival, though the patient populations being supported by each VAD type differed significantly from each other.</p>

<p><strong>CONCLUSIONS: </strong>This Fifth Pedimacs Report demonstrates the continued robust growth of VADs in the pediatric community, now with over 1000 patients reported to the registry. The multiple available device types (PC, PP, IC) serve different populations with different pre-VAD risk profiles, which may account for differences in survival and AE between device types.</p>

DOI

10.1016/j.athoracsur.2021.10.001

Alternate Title

Ann Thorac Surg

PMID

34648810

Title

Fourth Annual Pediatric Interagency Registry for Mechanical Circulatory Support (Pedimacs) Report.

Year of Publication

2020

Date Published

2020 Oct 08

ISSN Number

1552-6259

Abstract

<p><strong>BACKGROUND: </strong>Pedimacs, an originally NIH-sponsored U.S. database, provides a platform to understand the population of children supported with VADs during this time of increasing numbers, new devices, expanding indications, and improved outcomes.</p>

<p><strong>METHODS: </strong>Between 9/19/12-12/31/19, 44 hospitals implanted 1031 devices in 856 patients under 19 years-of-age.</p>

<p><strong>RESULTS: </strong>Overall, diagnosis was cardiomyopathy in 497(58%), congenital heart disease(CHD) in 216(25%), myocarditis in 85(10%), and other in 58(7%). Positive outcome (alive on device or bridge to transplantation/recovery) occurred in 82% at 6-months. The patient cohort for implantable continuous flow(IC) pumps (n=365)[age:13.2+/-3.9yrs., 18% INTERMACS profile-1, 23% intubated at implant, 16% with CHD] was significantly different from the paracorporeal continuous flow(PC) pump cohort (n=212)[age:3.6+/-4.9yrs, 46% INTERMACS profile-1, 81% intubated, 42% CHD] and the paracorporeal pulsatile(PP) pump cohort (n=230)[age:2.7 +/-3.5yrs, 31% INTERMACS profile-1, 76% intubated, 26% CHD]. Consistent with their cohort composition, positive outcomes at 6 months based on device type were IC-92%, PC-68%, and PP-81%. The incidence of cerebrovascular accidents(CVA) in the IC, PC, and PP cohorts is 7%, 14% and 15%, respectively.</p>

<p><strong>CONCLUSIONS: </strong>IC VADs, the most common VAD-type placed in children, are associated with improved outcomes compared to PP/PC devices, though PP/PC devices are limited to supporting our most challenging patients. Noteworthy, the incidence of CVA for pediatric VADs has significantly decreased and is now 11% overall. This report demonstrates again that although often attributed to age, size, or device type, much of the burden in mortality and adverse events is correlated to the patient's overall state at VAD implantation.</p>

DOI

10.1016/j.athoracsur.2020.09.003

Alternate Title

Ann Thorac Surg

PMID

33039359

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