First name
Yan
Last name
Wang

Title

Factors associated with discontinuation of pulmonary vasodilator therapy in children with bronchopulmonary dysplasia-associated pulmonary hypertension.

Year of Publication

2022

Number of Pages

1246-1254

Date Published

06/2022

ISSN Number

1476-5543

Abstract

OBJECTIVE: To evaluate factors associated with discontinuation of pulmonary vasodilator therapy in bronchopulmonary dysplasia-related pulmonary hypertension (BPD-PH).

STUDY DESIGN: Retrospective study of neonatal, echocardiographic, and cardiac catheterization data in 121 infants with BPD-PH discharged on pulmonary vasodilator therapy from 2009-2020 and followed into childhood.

RESULT: After median 4.4 years, medications were discontinued in 58%. Those in whom medications were discontinued had fewer days of invasive support, less severe BPD, lower incidence of PDA closure or cardiac catheterization, and higher incidence of fundoplication or tracheostomy decannulation (p < 0.05). On multivariable analysis, likelihood of medication discontinuation was lower with longer period of invasive respiratory support [HR 0.95 (CI:0.91-0.99), p = 0.01] and worse RV dilation on pre-discharge echocardiogram [HR 0.13 (CI:0.03-0.70), p = 0.017]. In those with tracheostomy, likelihood of medication discontinuation was higher with decannulation [HR 10.78 (CI:1.98-58.59), p < 0.001].

CONCLUSION: In BPD-PH, childhood discontinuation of pulmonary vasodilator therapy is associated with markers of disease severity.

DOI

10.1038/s41372-022-01421-6

Alternate Title

J Perinatol

PMID

35676536

Title

Accuracy of Brain Natriuretic Peptide for Diagnosing Pulmonary Hypertension in Severe Bronchopulmonary Dysplasia.

Year of Publication

2019

Number of Pages

147-153

Date Published

2019

ISSN Number

1661-7819

Abstract

<p><strong>BACKGROUND: </strong>Premature infants with severe bronchopulmonary dysplasia (sBPD) are at risk of pulmonary hypertension (PH). Serum brain natriuretic peptide (BNP) is used to predict disease severity in adult PH. Its diagnostic utility in sBPD-associated PH is unknown.</p>

<p><strong>OBJECTIVE: </strong>The aim of this paper was to determine the accuracy of BNP, against echocardiogram (echo), to diagnose PH in infants born &lt;32 weeks' gestation with sBPD.</p>

<p><strong>METHODS: </strong>We conducted a retrospective cohort study of all infants with sBPD with an echo and BNP within a 24-h period, at ≥36 weeks postmenstrual age. PH was defined as: right ventricular pressure &gt;½ systemic blood pressure estimated from tricuspid regurgitant jet or patent ductus arteriosus (PDA) velocity, bidirectional or right-to left-PDA, and/or flat/bowing ventricular septum at end-systole. Receiver-operating characteristic (ROC) curves were constructed to test the diagnostic accuracy of BNP.</p>

<p><strong>RESULTS: </strong>Of 128 infants, 68 (53%) had echo evidence of PH. BNP was higher among the infants with PH (median [interquartile range]: 127 pg/mL [39-290] vs. 35 [20-76], p &lt; 0.001). The area under the ROC curve for diagnosing PH using BNP was 0.74 (95% CI 0.66-0.83). At an optimal cutpoint of 130 pg/mL, BNP correctly classified the presence or absence of PH in 70% of the infants (specificity: 92, sensitivity: 50%).</p>

<p><strong>CONCLUSIONS: </strong>BNP, relative to concurrent echo, demonstrated moderate accuracy for diagnosing PH in this cohort of preterm infants with sBPD. BNP may help rule in PH in this population but has low utility to rule out the disease.</p>

DOI

10.1159/000499082

Alternate Title

Neonatology

PMID

31096210

Title

Echocardiographic strain analysis reflects impaired ventricular function in youth with pediatric-onset systemic lupus erythematosus.

Year of Publication

2020

Date Published

2020 Oct 03

ISSN Number

1540-8175

Abstract

<p><strong>BACKGROUND: </strong>Strain analysis with speckle-tracking echocardiography shows promise as a screening tool for silent myocardial dysfunction in pediatric-onset systemic lupus erythematosus (pSLE). We compared left ventricular (LV) systolic deformation (measured by strain) in children and adolescents with pSLE to controls, and assessed the relationship between strain, disease activity, and other noninvasive measures of cardiovascular health.</p>

<p><strong>METHODS: </strong>Twenty pSLE subjects ages 9-21 underwent comprehensive cardiovascular testing, including 2D speckle-tracking echocardiography, ambulatory blood pressure monitoring (ABPM), peripheral endothelial function testing, pulse wave velocity and analysis, and carotid ultrasound. Longitudinal apical-4 chamber (LS ) and midpoint circumferential strain (CS ) were compared to that of 70 healthy controls using multivariable linear regression. Among pSLE subjects, Pearson correlation coefficients were calculated to evaluate relationships between global longitudinal or circumferential strain and other measures of cardiovascular health.</p>

<p><strong>RESULTS: </strong>Average SLE disease duration was 3.2&nbsp;years (standard deviation [SD] 2.1). 2/20 pSLE subjects had persistent disease activity, and only one met criteria for hypertension by ABPM. LS was significantly reduced in pSLE subjects compared to controls (mean -18.3 [SD 3.2] vs -21.8% [SD 2.2], P-value &lt;.001). There was no significant difference in CS (-24.8 [SD 3.7] vs -25.7% [SD 3.4], P&nbsp;=&nbsp;.29). Among pSLE subjects, decreased nocturnal blood pressure dipping on ABPM was associated with reduced global circumferential strain (r -0.59, P&nbsp;=&nbsp;.01).</p>

<p><strong>CONCLUSIONS: </strong>Longitudinal myocardial deformation is impaired in pSLE patients despite clinical remission and may represent early myocardial damage. Strain analysis should be considered in addition to standard echocardiographic assessment during follow-up of patients with pSLE.</p>

DOI

10.1111/echo.14872

PMID

33009676

Title

Echocardiographic Findings in Pediatric Multisystem Inflammatory Syndrome Associated with COVID-19 in the United States.

Year of Publication

2020

Date Published

2020 Aug 31

ISSN Number

1558-3597

Abstract

<p><strong>BACKGROUND: </strong>Centers from Europe and United States have reported an exceedingly high number of children with a severe inflammatory syndrome in the setting of COVID-19, which has been termed multisystem inflammatory syndrome in children (MIS-C).</p>

<p><strong>OBJECTIVES: </strong>This study aimed to analyze echocardiographic manifestations in MIS-C.</p>

<p><strong>METHODS: </strong>We retrospectively reviewed 28 MIS-C, 20 healthy controls and 20 classic Kawasaki disease (KD) patients. We reviewed echocardiographic parameters in acute phase of MIS-C and KD groups, and during subacute period in MIS-C group (interval: 5.2 ± 3 days).</p>

<p><strong>RESULTS: </strong>Only 1 case in MIS-C (4%) manifested coronary artery dilatation (z score=3.15) in acute phase, showing resolution during early follow up. Left ventricular (LV) systolic and diastolic function measured by deformation parameters, were worse in MIS-C compared to KD. Moreover, MIS-C patients with myocardial injury (+) were more affected than myocardial injury (-) MIS-C with respect to all functional parameters. The strongest parameters to predict myocardial injury in MIS-C were global longitudinal strain (GLS), global circumferential strain (GCS), peak left atrial strain (LAS) and peak longitudinal strain of right ventricular free wall (RVFWLS) (Odds ratio: 1.45 (1.08-1.95), 1.39 (1.04-1.88), 0.84 (0.73-0.96), 1.59 (1.09-2.34) respectively). The preserved LVEF group in MIS-C showed diastolic dysfunction. During subacute period, LVEF returned to normal (median: from 54% to 64%, p&lt;0.001) but diastolic dysfunction persisted.</p>

<p><strong>CONCLUSIONS: </strong>Unlike classic KD, coronary arteries may be spared in early MIS-C, however, myocardial injury is common. Even preserved EF patients showed subtle changes in myocardial deformation, suggesting subclinical myocardial injury. During an abbreviated follow-up, there was good recovery of systolic function but persistence of diastolic dysfunction and no coronary aneurysms.</p>

<p><strong>CONDENSED ABSTRACT: </strong>Multisystem inflammatory syndrome in children (MIS-C) is an illness that resembles Kawasaki Disease (KD) or toxic shock, reported in children with a recent history of COVID-19 infection. This study analyzed echocardiographic manifestations of this illness. In our cohort of 28 MIS-C patients, left ventricular systolic and diastolic function were worse than in classic KD. These functional parameters correlated with biomarkers of myocardial injury. However, coronary arteries were typically spared. The strongest predictors of myocardial injury were global longitudinal strain, right ventricular strain, and left atrial strain. During subacute period, there was good recovery of systolic function, but diastolic dysfunction persisted.</p>

DOI

10.1016/j.jacc.2020.08.056

Alternate Title

J. Am. Coll. Cardiol.

PMID

32890666

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