First name
Megan
Middle name
M
Last name
Shannon

Title

Variation in NICU Head CT Utilization Among U.S. Children's Hospitals.

Year of Publication

2023

Date Published

01/2023

ISSN Number

2154-1671

Abstract

OBJECTIVES: Evaluate nationwide 12-year trend and hospital-level variation in head computed tomography (CT) utilization among infants admitted to pediatric hospital NICUs. We hypothesized there was significant variation in utilization.

METHODS: We conducted a retrospective cohort study examining head CT utilization for infants admitted to the NICU within 31 United States children's hospitals within the Pediatric Health Information System database between 2010 and 2021. Mixed effects logistic regression was used to estimate head CT, head MRI, and head ultrasound utilization (% of admissions) by year. Risk-adjusted hospital head CT rates were examined within the 2021 cohort.

RESULTS: Between 2010 and 2021, there were 338 644 NICU admissions, of which 10 052 included head CT (3.0%). Overall, head CT utilization decreased (4.9% in 2010 to 2.6% in 2021, P < .0001), with a concomitant increase in head MRI (12.1% to 18.7%, P < .0001) and head ultrasound (41.3% to 43.4%, P < .0001) utilization. In 2021, significant variation in risk-adjusted head CT utilization was noted across centers, with hospital head CT rates ranging from 0% to 10% of admissions. Greatest hospital-level variation was noted for patients with codes for seizure or encephalopathy (hospital head CT rate interquartile range [IQR] = 11.6%; 50th percentile = 12.0%), ventriculoperitoneal shunt (IQR = 10.8%; 50th percentile = 15.4%), and infection (IQR = 10.1%; 50th percentile = 7.5%).

CONCLUSIONS: Head CT utilization within pediatric hospital NICUs has declined over the past 12-years, but substantial hospital-level variation remains. Development of CT stewardship guidelines may help decrease variation and reduce infant radiation exposure.

DOI

10.1542/hpeds.2021-006322

Alternate Title

Hosp Pediatr

PMID

36617983

Title

Urban residential tree canopy and perceived stress among pregnant women.

Year of Publication

2021

Number of Pages

111620

Date Published

2021 Jul 01

ISSN Number

1096-0953

Abstract

<p><strong>OBJECTIVE: </strong>To examine the association of urban residential tree canopy cover with perceived stress in a cohort of pregnant women in Philadelphia, PA, and explore whether this association differed among participants with a history of anxiety and depression.</p>

<p><strong>STUDY DESIGN: </strong>We performed a secondary analysis of 1294 participants of the Motherhood &amp; Microbiome (M&amp;M) pregnancy cohort who lived in Philadelphia, with first visit perceived stress (Cohen's Perceived Stress Scale, PSS-14), and key covariate data. Tree canopy cover was calculated as percent cover within 100 and 500&nbsp;m radii buffers around participants' homes. We performed multilevel mixed effects linear regression models, with perceived stress as the dependent variable. The main independent variable was tree canopy coverage. Individual-level covariates included season of last menstrual period, history of depression or anxiety, race/ethnicity, insurance, parity, and age. Census tract neighborhood deprivation index was used to account for area-level socioeconomic confounding variables. We also examined whether a history of anxiety or depression, modified the association between tree canopy coverage and perceived stress.</p>

<p><strong>RESULTS: </strong>Most participants were non-Hispanic Black (70.6%, n&nbsp;=&nbsp;913), on Medicaid or uninsured (60.4%, n&nbsp;=&nbsp;781), and 15.8% (n&nbsp;=&nbsp;204) of participants had a prior history of depression or anxiety. We did not detect associations between tree canopy coverage and perceived stress overall. However, we detected effect modification; among participants with a history of depression or anxiety, each standard deviation increase in tree canopy cover was associated with lower PSS-14 in 100&nbsp;m buffers (β -1.0, 95% CI -1.8, -0.2), but not among participants with no histories of depression or anxiety (β 0.2, 95% CI -0.3, 0.7) (interaction P&nbsp;=&nbsp;0.007). Results were similar in directionality but not statistically significant within 500&nbsp;m buffers.</p>

<p><strong>CONCLUSION: </strong>Residential tree canopy coverage was associated with reduced perceived stress among urban-dwelling pregnant women with history of anxiety or depression. Future studies of the effects of greenness and other stress-reducing efforts should consider underlying mental health conditions as effect modifiers.</p>

DOI

10.1016/j.envres.2021.111620

Alternate Title

Environ Res

PMID

34216611

Title

Neighborhood Violent Crime and Perceived Stress in Pregnancy.

Year of Publication

2020

Date Published

2020 Aug 03

ISSN Number

1660-4601

Abstract

<p>Stress has been shown to adversely affect pregnancy outcomes. Neighborhood crime rates may serve as one publicly available social determinant of health for pregnancy studies that use registry or electronic health record datasets in which individual-level stress data are not available. We sought to determine whether neighborhood violent crime incidents were associated with measured perceived stress in a largely minority, urban pregnancy cohort. We performed a secondary analysis of the 1309 Philadelphia residents participating in the cohort ( = 2000) with both neighborhood violent crime and Cohen's Perceived Stress Scale (PSS-14) data. Generalized linear mixed models accounting for confounding variables and geographic clustering demonstrated that, regardless of race, women with the highest quartile of neighborhood violent crime had significantly elevated odds of high stress compared to women with lower crime. We also found that Black women were more likely to have both the highest quartile of neighborhood violent crime and high stress than non-Black women. Overall, this study demonstrates that neighborhood violent crime is associated with perceived stress in pregnancy. Given disparate exposure to crime and prenatal stress by race, future work is warranted to determine whether urban neighborhood violence and/or stress reduction strategies would improve birth outcome racial disparities.</p>

DOI

10.3390/ijerph17155585

Alternate Title

Int J Environ Res Public Health

PMID

32756321

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