First name
Ian
Last name
Frank

Title

A retrospective study of HIV pre-exposure prophylaxis counselling among non-Hispanic Black youth diagnosed with bacterial sexually transmitted infections in the United States, 2014-2019.

Year of Publication

2022

Number of Pages

e25867

Date Published

2022 Feb

ISSN Number

1758-2652

Abstract

<p><strong>INTRODUCTION: </strong>Youth account for a disproportionate number of new HIV infections; however, pre-exposure prophylaxis (PrEP) use is limited. We evaluated PrEP counselling rates among non-Hispanic Black youth in the United States after a bacterial sexually transmitted infection (STI) diagnosis.</p>

<p><strong>METHODS: </strong>We conducted a retrospective cohort study of Black youth receiving care at two academically affiliated clinics in Philadelphia between June 2014 and June 2019. We compared PrEP counselling for youth who received primary care services versus those who did not receive primary care services, all of whom met PrEP eligibility criteria due to STI diagnosis per U.S. Centers for Disease Control and Prevention clinical practice guidelines. Two logistic regression models for receipt of PrEP counselling were fit: Model 1 focused on sexual and gender minority (SGM) status and Model 2 on rectal STIs with both models adjusted for patient- and healthcare-level factors.</p>

<p><strong>RESULTS: </strong>Four hundred and sixteen patients met PrEP eligibility criteria due to STI based on sex assigned at birth and sexual partners. Thirty patients (7%) had documentation of PrEP counselling. Receipt of primary care services was not significantly associated with receipt of PrEP counselling in either Model 1 (adjusted OR (aOR) 0.10 [95% CI 0.01, 0.99]) or Model 2 (aOR 0.52 [95% CI 0.10, 2.77]). Receipt of PrEP counselling was significantly associated with later calendar years of STI diagnosis (aOR 6.80 [95% CI 1.64, 29.3]), assigned male sex at birth (aOR 26.2 [95% CI 3.46, 198]) and SGM identity (aOR 317 [95% CI 39.9, 2521]) in Model 1 and later calendar years of diagnosis (aOR 3.46 [95% CI 1.25, 9.58]), assigned male sex at birth (aOR 18.6 [95% CI 3.88, 89.3]) and rectal STI diagnosis (aOR 28.0 [95% CI 8.07, 97.5]) in Model 2. Fourteen patients (3%) started PrEP during the observation period; 12/14 (86%) were SGM primary care patients assigned male sex at birth.</p>

<p><strong>CONCLUSIONS: </strong>PrEP counselling and uptake among U.S. non-Hispanic Black youth remain disproportionately low despite recent STI diagnosis. These findings support the need for robust investment in PrEP-inclusive sexual health services that are widely implemented and culturally tailored to Black youth, particularly cisgender heterosexual females.</p>

DOI

10.1002/jia2.25867

Alternate Title

J Int AIDS Soc

PMID

35192740
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Title

Racial/Ethnic Differences in COVID-19 Vaccine Hesitancy Among Health Care Workers in 2 Large Academic Hospitals.

Year of Publication

2021

Number of Pages

e2121931

Date Published

2021 Aug 02

ISSN Number

2574-3805

Abstract

<p><strong>Importance: </strong>Significant differences in hesitancy to receive COVID-19 vaccination by race/ethnicity have been observed in several settings. Racial/ethnic differences in COVID-19 vaccine hesitancy among health care workers (HCWs), who face occupational and community exposure to COVID-19, have not been well described.</p>

<p><strong>Objective: </strong>To assess hesitancy to COVID-19 vaccination among HCWs across different racial/ethnic groups and assess factors associated with vaccine hesitancy.</p>

<p><strong>Design, Setting, and Participants: </strong>This survey study was conducted among HCWs from 2 large academic hospitals (ie, a children's hospital and an adult hospital) over a 3-week period in November and December 2020. Eligible participants were HCWs with and without direct patient contact. A 3-step hierarchical multivariable logistic regression was used to evaluate associations between race/ethnicity and vaccine hesitancy controlling for demographic characteristics, employment characteristics, COVID-19 exposure risk, and being up to date with routine vaccinations. Data were analyzed from February through March 2021.</p>

<p><strong>Main Outcomes and Measures: </strong>Vaccine hesitancy, defined as not planning on, being unsure about, or planning to delay vaccination, served as the outcome.</p>

<p><strong>Results: </strong>Among 34 865 HCWs eligible for this study, 12 034 individuals (34.5%) completed the survey and 10 871 individuals (32.2%) completed the survey and reported their race/ethnicity. Among 10 866 of these HCWs with data on sex, 8362 individuals (76.9%) were women, and among 10 833 HCWs with age data, 5923 individuals (54.5%) were younger than age 40 years. (Percentages for demographic and clinical characteristics are among the number of respondents for each type of question.) There were 8388 White individuals (77.2%), 882 Black individuals (8.1%), 845 Asian individuals (7.8%), and 449 individuals with other or mixed race/ethnicity (4.1%), and there were 307 Hispanic or Latino individuals (2.8%). Vaccine hesitancy was highest among Black HCWs (732 individuals [83.0%]) and Hispanic or Latino HCWs (195 individuals [63.5%]) (P &lt; .001). Among 5440 HCWs with vaccine hesitancy, reasons given for hesitancy included concerns about side effects (4737 individuals [87.1%]), newness of the vaccine (4306 individuals [79.2%]), and lack of vaccine knowledge (4091 individuals [75.2%]). The adjusted odds ratio (aOR) for vaccine hesitancy was 4.98 (95% CI, 4.11-6.03) among Black HCWs, 2.10 (95% CI, 1.63-2.70) among Hispanic or Latino HCWs, 1.48 (95% CI, 1.21-1.82) among HCWs with other or mixed race/ethnicity, and 1.47 (95% CI, 1.26-1.71) among Asian HCWs compared with White HCWs (P &lt; .001). The aOR was decreased among Black HCWs when adjusting for employment characteristics and COVID-19 exposure risk (aOR, 4.87; 95% CI, 3.96-6.00; P &lt; .001) and being up to date with prior vaccines (aOR, 4.48; 95% CI, 3.62-5.53; P &lt; .001) but not among HCWs with other racial/ethnic backgrounds.</p>

<p><strong>Conclusions and Relevance: </strong>This study found that vaccine hesitancy before the authorization of the COVID-19 vaccine was increased among Black, Hispanic or Latino, and Asian HCWs compared with White HCWs. These findings suggest that interventions focused on addressing vaccine hesitancy among HCWs are needed.</p>

DOI

10.1001/jamanetworkopen.2021.21931

Alternate Title

JAMA Netw Open

PMID

34459907
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Title

Mental Health, Social Influences, and HIV Pre-exposure Prophylaxis (PrEP) Utilization Among Men and Transgender Individuals Screening for HIV Prevention Trials.

Year of Publication

2020

Number of Pages

Date Published

2020 Aug 28

ISSN Number

1573-3254

Abstract

<p>The effects of mental health comorbidities and social support on the HIV pre-exposure prophylaxis (PrEP) care continuum are unknown. We conducted a cross-sectional study of men and transgender individuals, ≥ 18&nbsp;years-old, with ≥ 2 male or transgender partners, or recent condomless anal intercourse. Surveys assessed demographics, mental health treatment, depressive symptomatology, social support, and PrEP-related social contacts. Logistic regression assessed associations between these factors and PrEP uptake and persistence. Participants (n = 247) were 89% cis-male and 46% African-American. Median age was 27 (IQR:23-33). Thirty-seven percent had ever used PrEP, of whom 18% discontinued use. High depressive symptomology was identified in 11% and 9% were receiving mental health treatment. There were no significant associations between depressive symptoms or mental health treatment on the odds of PrEP uptake or discontinuation. Each additional PrEP contact conferred a greater odds of uptake (aOR:1.24, 95% CI: 1.09-1.42). Network-level targets may produce fruitful interventions to increase PrEP uptake.</p>

DOI

10.1007/s10461-020-03004-y

Alternate Title

AIDS Behav

PMID

32860114
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