First name
Xi
Last name
Wang

Title

The Effectiveness Of Government Masking Mandates On COVID-19 County-Level Case Incidence Across The United States, 2020.

Year of Publication

2022

Number of Pages

101377hlthaff202101072

Date Published

2022 Feb 16

ISSN Number

1544-5208

Abstract

<p>Evidence for the effectiveness of masking on SARS-CoV-2 transmission at the individual level has accumulated, but the additional benefit of community-level mandates is less certain. In this observational study of matched cohorts from 394 US counties between March 21 and October 20, 2020, we estimated the association between county-level public masking mandates and daily COVID-19 case incidence. On average, the daily case incidence per 100,000 people in masked counties compared with unmasked counties declined by 23&nbsp;percent at four weeks, 33&nbsp;percent at six weeks, and 16&nbsp;percent across six weeks postintervention. The beneficial effect varied across regions of different population densities and political leanings. The most concentrated effects of masking mandates were seen in urban counties; the benefit of the mandates was potentially stronger within Republican-leaning counties. Although benefits were not equally distributed in all regions, masking mandates conferred benefit in reducing community case incidence during an early period of the COVID-19 pandemic.</p>

DOI

10.1377/hlthaff.2021.01072

Alternate Title

Health Aff (Millwood)

PMID

35171693

Title

Eligibility, Utilization, and Effectiveness of 17-Alpha Hydroxyprogesterone Caproate (17OHPC) in a Statewide Population-Based Cohort of Medicaid Enrollees.

Year of Publication

2021

Date Published

2021 Nov 16

ISSN Number

1098-8785

Abstract

<p><strong>OBJECTIVES: </strong> The primary objective was to estimate the initiation and adherence rates of 17 α-hydroxyprogesterone caproate (17OHPC) among eligible mothers in a statewide population-based cohort of Medicaid enrollees. The secondary objectives were to (1) determine the association of maternal sociodemographic and clinical characteristics with 17OHPC utilization and (2) assess the real-world effectiveness of 17OHPC on recurrent preterm birth prevention and admission to neonatal intensive care unit (NICU).</p>

<p><strong>STUDY DESIGN: </strong> This is a retrospective cohort study using a linked, longitudinal administrative dataset of birth certificates and medical assistance claims. Medicaid-enrolled mothers in Pennsylvania were included in this study if they had at least one singleton live birth from 2014 to 2016 following at least one spontaneous preterm birth. Maternal Medicaid claims were used to ascertain the use of 17OHPC from various manufacturers, including compounded formulations. Propensity score matching was used to create a covariate balance between 17OHPC treatment and comparison groups.</p>

<p><strong>RESULTS: </strong> We identified 4,781 Medicaid-covered 17OHPC-eligible pregnancies from 2014 to 2016 in Pennsylvania, 3.4% of all Medicaid-covered singleton live births. The population-based initiation rate was 28.5% among eligible pregnancies. Among initiators, 50% received ≥16 doses as recommended, while 10% received a single dose only. The severity of previous spontaneous preterm birth was the strongest predictor for the initiation and adherence of 17OHPC. In the matched treatment ( = 1,210) and comparison groups ( = 1,210), we found no evidence of 17OHPC effectiveness. The risks of recurrent preterm birth (relative risk [RR] 1.10, 95% confidence interval [CI] 0.97-1.24) and births admitted to NICU (RR 1.00, 95% CI 0.84-1.18) were similar in treated and comparison mothers.</p>

<p><strong>CONCLUSION: </strong> The 17OHPC-eligible population represented 3.4% of singleton live births. Less than one-third of eligible mothers initiated treatment. Among initiators, 50% were treatment adherent. We found no difference in the risk of recurrent preterm birth or admission to NICU between treatment and comparison groups.</p>

<p><strong>KEY POINTS: </strong>· 3.4% of singleton live births were eligible for 17OHPC.. · About 30% of eligible mothers initiated treatment.. · We found no association of 17OHPC with recurrent preterm birth..</p>

DOI

10.1055/s-0041-1739504

Alternate Title

Am J Perinatol

PMID

34784617

Title

Patient and Provider Perspectives on Acceptability, Access, and Adherence to 17-Alpha-Hydroxyprogesterone Caproate for Preterm Birth Prevention.

Year of Publication

2021

Number of Pages

295-304

Date Published

2021

ISSN Number

2688-4844

Abstract

<p>Preterm birth (PTB) is a pressing maternal and child health issue with long-standing racial inequities in outcomes and care provision. 17-Alpha-hydroxyprogesterone caproate (17OHPC) has been one of few clinical interventions for recurrent PTB prevention. Little is known about the factors influencing successful administration and receipt of 17OHPC among mothers in the Medicaid program. We conducted individual semistructured interviews with 17OHPC-eligible pregnant women and obstetric providers from two academic medical centers in Philadelphia, PA. Patient participants were publicly insured, eligible for 17OHPC treatment, and purposively sampled as either (1) actively receiving treatment or (2) declining/discontinuing treatment. Providers had experience providing care to Medicaid-enrolled patients. Interview transcripts were coded and analyzed to identify themes related to treatment acceptability, access, and adherence. Of the 17 patient participants, the mean age was 30 years. Ten providers (MDs, nurse practitioners, and registered nurses) were also interviewed. Factors facilitating 17OHPC uptake and adherence among patients included severity of prior PTB, provider counseling, and coordination among the clinic, pharmacy, and insurance. Pain was cited as the most significant barrier to 17OHPC for patients, while providers perceived social adversity and beliefs about patients' commitment to treatment to be primary patient barriers. For providers, clinical experience and practice guidelines contributed to their use of 17OHPC. Administrative complexity and coordination of services were the primary provider barrier to 17OHPC administration. Patient-provider communication is a primary driver of 17OHPC acceptability and adherence. Comprehensive patient-centered consultation may improve uptake of clinical therapies among pregnant women at high risk for PTB.</p>

DOI

10.1089/whr.2021.0022

Alternate Title

Womens Health Rep (New Rochelle)

PMID

34327511

Title

SARS-CoV-2 Infection in Public School District Employees Following a District-Wide Vaccination Program - Philadelphia County, Pennsylvania, March 21-April 23, 2021.

Year of Publication

2021

Number of Pages

1040-1043

Date Published

2021 Jul 30

ISSN Number

1545-861X

Abstract

<p>The School District of Philadelphia reopened for in-school instruction the week of March 21, 2021, and required weekly testing for SARS-CoV-2, the virus that causes COVID-19, for all employees returning to in-school responsibilities. The resumption of in-school instruction followed a mass vaccination program using the Pfizer-BioNTech 2-dose vaccine offered under a partnership between the Philadelphia Department of Public Health and Children's Hospital of Philadelphia to all 22,808 School District of Philadelphia employees during February 23-April 3, 2021.* The subsequent mandatory testing program provided an opportunity to assess the percentage of positive BinaxNow point-of-care antigen tests (Abbott Laboratories) identified among school staff members based on their self-reported vaccination status (i.e., received zero, 1, or 2 vaccine doses) at the time of testing. During the initial 5 weeks after schools reopened, 34,048 screening tests were performed. Overall, 0.70% of tests returned a positive result. The percentage of positive test results was lower among persons who reported receipt of 2 vaccine doses (0.09%) compared with those who reported receipt of 1 dose (1.21%) or zero doses (1.76%) (p&lt;0.001) representing a 95% reduction in percentage of positive SARS-CoV-2 test results among persons reporting receipt of 2 compared with zero doses of Pfizer-BioNTech vaccine. Vaccination of school staff members has been highlighted as an important strategy to maximize the safety of in-person education of K-12 students this fall (1). These findings reinforce the importance of promoting COVID-19 vaccination among school staff members before commencement of the 2021-22 school year.</p>

DOI

10.15585/mmwr.mm7030e1

Alternate Title

MMWR Morb Mortal Wkly Rep

PMID

34324479

Title

Integrating the Built and Social Environment into Health Assessments for Maternal and Child Health: Creating a Planning-Friendly Index.

Year of Publication

2020

Date Published

2020 Dec 10

ISSN Number

1660-4601

Abstract

<p>Environmental and community context earliest in the life course have a profound effect on life-long health outcomes. Yet, standard needs assessments for maternal and child health (MCH) programs often overlook the full range of influences affecting health in-utero and early childhood. To address this, we developed a methodology for assessing community risk in MCH based on six domains integrating 66 indicators across community, environment, socioeconomic indicators, and MCH outcomes. We pilot this methodology in Pennsylvania, and share examples of how local governments, planners, and public health officials across the geographic spectrum can integrate this data into community planning for improved maternal and child health.</p>

DOI

10.3390/ijerph17249224

Alternate Title

Int J Environ Res Public Health

PMID

33321736

Title

Association of Social Distancing, Population Density, and Temperature With the Instantaneous Reproduction Number of SARS-CoV-2 in Counties Across the United States.

Year of Publication

2020

Number of Pages

e2016099

Date Published

2020 Jul 01

ISSN Number

2574-3805

Abstract

<p><strong>Importance: </strong>Local variation in the transmission of severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) across the United States has not been well studied.</p>

<p><strong>Objective: </strong>To examine the association of county-level factors with variation in the SARS-CoV-2 reproduction number over time.</p>

<p><strong>Design, Setting, and Participants: </strong>This cohort study included 211 counties, representing state capitals and cities with at least 100 000 residents and including 178 892 208 US residents, in 46 states and the District of Columbia between February 25, 2020, and April 23, 2020.</p>

<p><strong>Exposures: </strong>Social distancing, measured by percentage change in visits to nonessential businesses; population density; and daily wet-bulb temperatures.</p>

<p><strong>Main Outcomes and Measures: </strong>Instantaneous reproduction number (Rt), or cases generated by each incident case at a given time, estimated from daily case incidence data.</p>

<p><strong>Results: </strong>The 211 counties contained 178 892 208 of 326 289 971 US residents (54.8%). Median (interquartile range) population density was 1022.7 (471.2-1846.0) people per square mile. The mean (SD) peak reduction in visits to nonessential business between April 6 and April 19, as the country was sheltering in place, was 68.7% (7.9%). Median (interquartile range) daily wet-bulb temperatures were 7.5 (3.8-12.8) °C. Median (interquartile range) case incidence and fatality rates per 100 000 people were approximately 10 times higher for the top decile of densely populated counties (1185.2 [313.2-1891.2] cases; 43.7 [10.4-106.7] deaths) than for counties in the lowest density quartile (121.4 [87.8-175.4] cases; 4.2 [1.9-8.0] deaths). Mean (SD) Rt in the first 2 weeks was 5.7 (2.5) in the top decile compared with 3.1 (1.2) in the lowest quartile. In multivariable analysis, a 50% decrease in visits to nonessential businesses was associated with a 45% decrease in Rt (95% CI, 43%-49%). From a relative Rt at 0 °C of 2.13 (95% CI, 1.89-2.40), relative Rt decreased to a minimum as temperatures warmed to 11 °C, increased between 11 and 20 °C (1.61; 95% CI, 1.42-1.84) and then declined again at temperatures greater than 20 °C. With a 70% reduction in visits to nonessential business, 202 counties (95.7%) were estimated to fall below a threshold Rt of 1.0, including 17 of 21 counties (81.0%) in the top density decile and 52 of 53 counties (98.1%) in the lowest density quartile.2.</p>

<p><strong>Conclusions and Relevance: </strong>In this cohort study, social distancing, lower population density, and temperate weather were associated with a decreased Rt for SARS-CoV-2 in counties across the United States. These associations could inform selective public policy planning in communities during the coronavirus disease 2019 pandemic.</p>

DOI

10.1001/jamanetworkopen.2020.16099

Alternate Title

JAMA Netw Open

PMID

32701162

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