First name
Madeline
Middle name
R
Last name
Pfeifer

Title

Comparison of Maternal and Neonatal Antibody Levels After COVID-19 Vaccination vs SARS-CoV-2 Infection.

Year of Publication

2022

Number of Pages

e2240993

Date Published

11/2022

ISSN Number

2574-3805

Abstract

Importance: Pregnant persons are at an increased risk of severe COVID-19 from SARS-CoV-2 infection, and COVID-19 vaccination is currently recommended during pregnancy.

Objective: To ascertain the association of vaccine type, time from vaccination, gestational age at delivery, and pregnancy complications with placental transfer of antibodies to SARS-CoV-2.

Design, Setting, and Participants: This cohort study was conducted in Pennsylvania Hospital in Philadelphia, Pennsylvania, and included births at the study site between August 9, 2020, and April 25, 2021. Maternal and cord blood serum samples were available for antibody level measurements for maternal-neonatal dyads.

Exposures: SARS-CoV-2 infection vs COVID-19 vaccination.

Main Outcomes and Measures: IgG antibodies to the receptor-binding domain of the SARS-CoV-2 spike protein were measured by quantitative enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay. Antibody concentrations and transplacental transfer ratios were measured after SARS-CoV-2 infection or receipt of COVID-19 vaccines.

Results: A total of 585 maternal-newborn dyads (median [IQR] maternal age, 31 [26-35] years; median [IQR] gestational age, 39 [38-40] weeks) with maternal IgG antibodies to SARS-CoV-2 detected at the time of delivery were included. IgG was detected in cord blood from 557 of 585 newborns (95.2%). Among 169 vaccinated persons without SARS-CoV-2 infection, the interval from first dose of vaccine to delivery ranged from 12 to 122 days. The geometric mean IgG level among 169 vaccine recipients was significantly higher than that measured in 408 persons after infection (33.88 [95% CI, 27.64-41.53] arbitrary U/mL vs 2.80 [95% CI, 2.50-3.13] arbitrary U/mL). Geometric mean IgG levels were higher after vaccination with the mRNA-1273 (Moderna) vaccine compared with the BNT162b2 (Pfizer/BioNTech) vaccine (53.74 [95% CI, 40.49-71.33] arbitrary U/mL vs 25.45 [95% CI, 19.17-33.79] arbitrary U/mL; P < .001). Placental transfer ratios were lower after vaccination compared with after infection (0.80 [95% CI, 0.68-0.93] vs 1.06 [95% CI, 0.98-1.14]; P < .001) but were similar between the mRNA vaccines (mRNA-1273: 0.70 [95% CI, 0.55-0.90]; BNT162b2: 0.85 [95% CI, 0.69-1.06]; P = .25). Time from infection or vaccination to delivery was associated with transfer ratio in models that included gestational age at delivery and maternal hypertensive disorders, diabetes, and obesity. Placental antibody transfer was detectable as early as 26 weeks' gestation. Transfer ratio that was higher than 1.0 was present for 48 of 51 (94.1%) births at 36 weeks' gestation or later by 8 weeks after vaccination.

Conclusions and Relevance: This study found that maternal and cord blood IgG antibody levels were higher after COVID-19 vaccination compared with after SARS-CoV-2 infection, with slightly lower placental transfer ratios after vaccination than after infection. The findings suggest that time from infection or vaccination to delivery was the most important factor in transfer efficiency.

DOI

10.1001/jamanetworkopen.2022.40993

Alternate Title

JAMA Netw Open

PMID

36350652

Title

Neighborhood Characteristics and Racial Disparities in Severe Acute Respiratory Syndrome Coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) Seropositivity in Pregnancy.

Year of Publication

2022

Number of Pages

1018-1026

Date Published

06/2022

ISSN Number

1873-233X

Abstract

OBJECTIVE: To quantify the extent to which neighborhood characteristics contribute to racial and ethnic disparities in severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) seropositivity in pregnancy.

METHODS: This cohort study included pregnant patients who presented for childbirth at two hospitals in Philadelphia, Pennsylvania from April 13 to December 31, 2020. Seropositivity for SARS-CoV-2 was determined by measuring immunoglobulin G and immunoglobulin M antibodies by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay in discarded maternal serum samples obtained for clinical purposes. Race and ethnicity were self-reported and abstracted from medical records. Patients' residential addresses were geocoded to obtain three Census tract variables: community deprivation, racial segregation (Index of Concentration at the Extremes), and crowding. Multivariable mixed effects logistic regression models and causal mediation analyses were used to quantify the extent to which neighborhood variables may explain racial and ethnic disparities in seropositivity.

RESULTS: Among 5,991 pregnant patients, 562 (9.4%) were seropositive for SARS-CoV-2. Higher seropositivity rates were observed among Hispanic (19.3%, 104/538) and Black (14.0%, 373/2,658) patients, compared with Asian (3.2%, 13/406) patients, White (2.7%, 57/2,133) patients, and patients of another race or ethnicity (5.9%, 15/256) (P<.001). In adjusted models, per SD increase, deprivation (adjusted odds ratio [aOR] 1.16, 95% CI 1.02-1.32) and crowding (aOR 1.15, 95% CI 1.05-1.26) were associated with seropositivity, but segregation was not (aOR 0.90, 95% CI 0.78-1.04). Mediation analyses revealed that crowded housing may explain 6.7% (95% CI 2.0-14.7%) of the Hispanic-White disparity and that neighborhood deprivation may explain 10.2% (95% CI 0.5-21.1%) of the Black-White disparity.

CONCLUSION: Neighborhood deprivation and crowding were associated with SARS-CoV-2 seropositivity in pregnancy in the prevaccination era and may partially explain high rates of SARS-CoV-2 seropositivity among Black and Hispanic patients. Investing in structural neighborhood improvements may reduce inequities in viral transmission.

DOI

10.1097/AOG.0000000000004791

Alternate Title

Obstet Gynecol

PMID

35675599

Title

Perinatal COVID-19 maternal and neonatal outcomes at two academic birth hospitals.

Year of Publication

2022

Date Published

07/2022

ISSN Number

1476-5543

Abstract

OBJECTIVE: Describe 1-month outcomes among newborns of persons with perinatal COVID-19.

STUDY DESIGN: Prospective observational study of pregnant persons who tested positive for SARS-CoV-2 between 14 days before and 3 days after delivery and their newborns, from 3/2020 to 3/2021 at two urban high-risk academic hospitals. Phone interviews were conducted to determine 1-month newborn outcomes.

RESULTS: Among 9748 pregnant persons, 209 (2.1%) tested positive for perinatal SARS-CoV-2. Symptomatically infected persons were more likely to have a preterm delivery due to worsening maternal condition and their newborns were more likely to test positive for SARS-CoV-2 compared with asymptomatic persons. Six of 191 (3.1%) infants tested were positive for SARS-CoV-2; none had attributable illness before discharge. Of 169 eligible families, 132 (78.1%) participated in post-discharge interviews; none reported their newborn tested positive for SARS-CoV-2 by 1 month of age.

CONCLUSION: Symptomatic perinatal COVID-19 had a substantial effect on maternal health but no apparent short-term effect on newborns.

DOI

10.1038/s41372-022-01446-x

Alternate Title

J Perinatol

PMID

35778485

Title

Updated Guidance: Prevention and Management of Perinatal Group B Streptococcus Infection.

Year of Publication

2021

Number of Pages

e177-e188

Date Published

2021 Mar 01

ISSN Number

1526-9906

Abstract

<p>Group B Streptococcus (GBS) remains the most common cause of neonatal early-onset sepsis among term infants and a major cause of late-onset sepsis among both term and preterm infants. The American Academy of Pediatrics and the American College of Obstetricians and Gynecologists published separate but aligned guidelines in 2019 and 2020 for the prevention and management of perinatal GBS disease. Together, these replace prior consensus guidelines provided by the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention. Maternal intrapartum antibiotic prophylaxis based on antenatal screening for GBS colonization remains the primary recommended approach to prevent perinatal GBS disease, though the optimal window for screening is changed to 36 0/7 to 37 6/7 weeks of gestation rather than beginning at 35 0/7 weeks' gestation. Penicillin, ampicillin, or cefazolin are recommended for prophylaxis, with clindamycin and vancomycin reserved for cases of significant maternal penicillin allergy. Pregnant women with a history of penicillin allergy are now recommended to undergo skin testing, because confirmation of or delabeling from a penicillin allergy can provide both short- and long-term health benefits. Aligned with the American Academy of Pediatrics recommendations for evaluating newborns for all causes of early-onset sepsis, separate consideration should be given to infants born at less than 35 weeks' and more than or equal to 35 weeks' gestation when performing GBS risk assessment. Empiric antibiotics are recommended for infants at high risk for GBS early-onset disease. Although intrapartum antibiotic prophylaxis is effective in preventing GBS early-onset disease, currently there is no approach for the prevention of GBS late-onset disease.</p>

Alternate Title

Neoreviews

PMID

35148404

Title

Updated Guidance: Prevention and Management of Perinatal Group B Infection.

Year of Publication

2021

Number of Pages

e177-e188

Date Published

2021 Mar

ISSN Number

1526-9906

Abstract

<p>Group B (GBS) remains the most common cause of neonatal early-onset sepsis among term infants and a major cause of late-onset sepsis among both term and preterm infants. The American Academy of Pediatrics and the American College of Obstetricians and Gynecologists published separate but aligned guidelines in 2019 and 2020 for the prevention and management of perinatal GBS disease. Together, these replace prior consensus guidelines provided by the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention. Maternal intrapartum antibiotic prophylaxis based on antenatal screening for GBS colonization remains the primary recommended approach to prevent perinatal GBS disease, though the optimal window for screening is changed to 36 0/7 to 37 6/7 weeks of gestation rather than beginning at 35 0/7 weeks' gestation. Penicillin, ampicillin, or cefazolin are recommended for prophylaxis, with clindamycin and vancomycin reserved for cases of significant maternal penicillin allergy. Pregnant women with a history of penicillin allergy are now recommended to undergo skin testing, because confirmation of or delabeling from a penicillin allergy can provide both short- and long-term health benefits. Aligned with the American Academy of Pediatrics recommendations for evaluating newborns for all causes of early-onset sepsis, separate consideration should be given to infants born at less than 35 weeks' and more than or equal to 35 weeks' gestation when performing GBS risk assessment. Empiric antibiotics are recommended for infants at high risk for GBS early-onset disease. Although intrapartum antibiotic prophylaxis is effective in preventing GBS early-onset disease, currently there is no approach for the prevention of GBS late-onset disease.</p>

DOI

10.1542/neo.22-3-e177

Alternate Title

Neoreviews

PMID

33649090

Title

Assessment of Maternal and Neonatal Cord Blood SARS-CoV-2 Antibodies and Placental Transfer Ratios.

Year of Publication

2021

Date Published

2021 Jan 29

ISSN Number

2168-6211

Abstract

<p><strong>Importance: </strong>Maternally derived antibodies are a key element of neonatal immunity. Understanding the dynamics of maternal antibody responses to severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) infection during pregnancy and subsequent transplacental antibody transfer can inform neonatal management as well as maternal vaccination strategies.</p>

<p><strong>Objective: </strong>To assess the association between maternal and neonatal SARS-CoV-2-specific antibody concentrations.</p>

<p><strong>Design, Setting, and Participants: </strong>This cohort study took place at Pennsylvania Hospital in Philadelphia, Pennsylvania. A total of 1714 women delivered at the study site between April 9 and August 8, 2020. Maternal and cord blood sera were available for antibody measurement for 1471 mother/newborn dyads.</p>

<p><strong>Exposures: </strong>SARS-CoV-2.</p>

<p><strong>Main Outcomes and Measures: </strong>IgG and IgM antibodies to the receptor-binding domain of the SARS-CoV-2 spike protein were measured by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay. Antibody concentrations and transplacental transfer ratios were analyzed in combination with demographic and clinical data.</p>

<p><strong>Results: </strong>The study cohort consisted of 1714 parturient women, with median (interquartile range) age of 32 (28-35) years, of whom 450 (26.3%) identified as Black/non-Hispanic, 879 (51.3%) as White/non-Hispanic, 203 (11.8%) as Hispanic, 126 (7.3%) as Asian, and 56 (3.3%) as other race/ethnicity. Among 1471 mother/newborn dyads for which matched sera were available, SARS-CoV-2 IgG and/or IgM antibodies were detected in 83 of 1471 women (6%; 95% CI, 5%-7%) at the time of delivery, and IgG was detected in cord blood from 72 of 83 newborns (87%; 95% CI, 78%-93%). IgM was not detected in any cord blood specimen, and antibodies were not detected in any infant born to a seronegative mother. Eleven infants born to seropositive mothers were seronegative: 5 of 11 (45%) were born to mothers with IgM antibody only, and 6 of 11 (55%) were born to mothers with significantly lower IgG concentrations compared with those found among mothers of seropositive infants. Cord blood IgG concentrations were positively correlated with maternal IgG concentrations (r = 0.886; P &lt; .001). Placental transfer ratios more than 1.0 were observed among women with asymptomatic SARS-CoV-2 infections as well as those with mild, moderate, and severe coronavirus disease 2019. Transfer ratios increased with increasing time between onset of maternal infection and delivery.</p>

<p><strong>Conclusions and Relevance: </strong>In this cohort study, maternal IgG antibodies to SARS-CoV-2 were transferred across the placenta after asymptomatic as well as symptomatic infection during pregnancy. Cord blood antibody concentrations correlated with maternal antibody concentrations and with duration between onset of infection and delivery. Our findings demonstrate the potential for maternally derived SARS-CoV-2 specific antibodies to provide neonatal protection from coronavirus disease 2019.</p>

DOI

10.1001/jamapediatrics.2021.0038

Alternate Title

JAMA Pediatr

PMID

33512440

Title

SARS-CoV-2 seroprevalence among parturient women in Philadelphia.

Year of Publication

2020

Date Published

2020 Jul 29

ISSN Number

2470-9468

Abstract

<p>Limited data are available for pregnant women affected by SARS-CoV-2. Serological tests are critically important for determining SARS-CoV-2 exposures within both individuals and populations. We validated a SARS-CoV-2 spike receptor binding domain serological test using 834 pre-pandemic samples and 31 samples from COVID-19 recovered donors. We then completed SARS-CoV-2 serological testing of 1,293 parturient women at two centers in Philadelphia from April 4 to June 3, 2020. We found 80/1,293 (6.2%) of parturient women possessed IgG and/or IgM SARS-CoV-2-specific antibodies. We found race/ethnicity differences in seroprevalence rates, with higher rates in Black/non-Hispanic and Hispanic/Latino women. Of the 72 seropositive women who also received nasopharyngeal polymerase chain reaction testing during pregnancy, 46 (64%) were positive. Continued serologic surveillance among pregnant women may inform perinatal clinical practices and can potentially be used to estimate exposure to SARS-CoV-2 within the community.</p>

DOI

10.1126/sciimmunol.abd5709

Alternate Title

Sci Immunol

PMID

32727884

Title

SARS-CoV-2 Seroprevalence Among Parturient Women.

Year of Publication

2020

Date Published

2020 Jul 10

Abstract

<p>Limited data are available for pregnant women affected by SARS-CoV-2. Serological tests are critically important to determine exposure and immunity to SARS-CoV-2 within both individuals and populations. We completed SARS-CoV-2 serological testing of 1,293 parturient women at two centers in Philadelphia from April 4 to June 3, 2020. We tested 834 pre-pandemic samples collected in 2019 and 15 samples from COVID-19 recovered donors to validate our assay, which has a ~1% false positive rate. We found 80/1,293 (6.2%) of parturient women possessed IgG and/or IgM SARS-CoV-2-specific antibodies. We found race/ethnicity differences in seroprevalence rates, with higher rates in Black/non-Hispanic and Hispanic/Latino women. Of the 72 seropositive women who also received nasopharyngeal polymerase chain reaction testing during pregnancy, 46 (64%) were positive. Continued serologic surveillance among pregnant women may inform perinatal clinical practices and can potentially be used to estimate seroprevalence within the community.</p>

DOI

10.1101/2020.07.08.20149179

Alternate Title

medRxiv

PMID

32676623

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