First name
Struan
Middle name
F A
Last name
Grant

Title

Associations of the residential built environment with adolescent sleep outcomes.

Year of Publication

2021

Date Published

2021 Jan 28

ISSN Number

1550-9109

Abstract

<p><strong>STUDY OBJECTIVES: </strong>Over 75% of US high school students obtain insufficient sleep, placing them at risk for adverse health outcomes. Identification of modifiable determinants of adolescent sleep is needed to inform prevention strategies, yet little is known about the influence of the built environment on adolescent sleep.</p>

<p><strong>METHODS: </strong>In this prospective study, actigraphy was used to assess sleep outcomes among 110 adolescents for 14 days each in eighth and ninth grades: duration (hours/night), onset and offset, and sleeping ≥8 hours. Home addresses were linked to built environment exposures: sound levels, tree canopy cover, street density, intersection density, population density, and housing density. Mixed-effects regression estimated associations of built environment measures with sleep outcomes, adjusting for sex, race, parent education, household income, household size, grade, weeknight status, and neighborhood poverty.</p>

<p><strong>RESULTS: </strong>A 1-standard deviation (SD) increase in neighborhood sound was associated with 16 minutes later sleep onset (β = 0.28; 95% confidence interval (CI): 0.06, 0.49) and 25% lower odds of sleeping for ≥8 hours (odds ratio (OR) = 0.75, 95% CI: 0.59, 0.96). A 1-SD increase in neighborhood tree canopy was associated with 18 minutes earlier sleep onset (β = -0.31, 95% CI: -0.49, -0.13) and 10 minutes earlier sleep offset (β= -0.17, 95% CI: -0.28, -0.05). No associations were observed for density-based exposures.</p>

<p><strong>CONCLUSIONS: </strong>Higher neighborhood sound level was associated with lower odds of sufficient sleep, while higher tree canopy cover was associated with more favorable sleep timing. Neighborhood sound levels and tree canopy cover are potential targets for policies and interventions to support healthier sleep among adolescents.</p>

DOI

10.1093/sleep/zsaa276

Alternate Title

Sleep

PMID

33507268

Title

Changes in Sleep Duration and Timing During the Middle-to-High School Transition.

Year of Publication

2020

Date Published

2020 Jun 20

ISSN Number

1879-1972

Abstract

<p><strong>PURPOSE: </strong>The purpose of the study was to quantify changes in sleep during the middle-to-high school transition and determine if changes in sleep differ by sociodemographic characteristics.</p>

<p><strong>METHODS: </strong>Adolescents were enrolled in eighth grade and followed into ninth grade (N&nbsp;= 110; 2,470 nights observed). The outcomes were actigraphy-estimated sleep duration, sleep onset, sleep offset, and sleep sufficiency (≥8&nbsp;hours of sleep). The exposures were school grade (eighth or ninth), school night status (school or nonschool), sex (female or male), and race (white, black, or other).</p>

<p><strong>RESULTS: </strong>On school nights, sleep duration declined by 25.8&nbsp;minutes per night (p &lt; .001) from eighth to ninth grade. There was no change in sleep duration on nonschool nights. Timing of sleep onset was 22.2&nbsp;minutes later on school nights (p &lt; .001) and 17.4&nbsp;minutes later on nonschool nights (p&nbsp;&lt;&nbsp;.001) in ninth grade. Timing of sleep offset did not change on school mornings but was 22.2&nbsp;minutes later on nonschool mornings (p &lt; .001) in ninth grade. The proportion of school nights (and nonschool nights) with sleep duration ≥8&nbsp;hours was 9.4% (38.3%) in eighth grade and 5.7% (35.9%) in ninth grade. The odds of sleeping ≥8&nbsp;hours per night was 42% lower in ninth grade, compared toeighth grade (odds ratio&nbsp;= .58; 95% confidence interval: .37, .91). Males were 59% less likely to sleep ≥8&nbsp;hours per night. Black adolescents were 51% less likely to sleep ≥8&nbsp;hours per night.</p>

<p><strong>CONCLUSIONS: </strong>Insufficient sleep is highly prevalent, especially on school nights and among male and black adolescents, and this problem worsens with the transition to high school.</p>

DOI

10.1016/j.jadohealth.2020.04.024

Alternate Title

J Adolesc Health

PMID

32576483

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