First name
Justine
Last name
Shults

Title

Text Message Reminders for the Second Dose of Influenza Vaccine for Children: An RCT.

Year of Publication

2022

Date Published

08/2022

ISSN Number

1098-4275

Abstract

BACKGROUND AND OBJECTIVES: Among children requiring 2 influenza doses in a given season, second dose receipt nearly halves the odds of influenza. Nationally, many children do not receive both needed doses. This study sought to compare the effectiveness of text message reminders with embedded interactive educational information versus usual care on receipt and timeliness of the second dose of influenza vaccine.

METHODS: This trial took place over the 2017 to 2018 and 2018 to 2019 influenza seasons among 50 pediatric primary care offices across 24 states primarily from the American Academy of Pediatrics' Pediatric Research in Office Settings practice-based research network. Caregiver-child dyads of children 6 months to 8 years in need of a second influenza vaccination that season were individually randomized 1:1 into intervention versus usual care, stratified by age and language within each practice. Intervention caregivers received automated, personalized text messages, including educational information. Second dose receipt by April 30 (season end) and by day 42 (2 weeks after second dose due date) were assessed using Mantel Haenszel methods by practice and language. Analyses were intention to treat.

RESULTS: Among 2086 dyads enrolled, most children were 6 to 23 months and half publicly insured. Intervention children were more likely to receive a second dose by season end (83.8% versus 80.9%; adjusted risk difference (ARD) 3.8%; 95% confidence interval [0.1 to 7.5]) and day 42 (62.4% versus 55.7%; ARD 8.3% [3.6 to 13.0]).

CONCLUSIONS: In this large-scale trial of primary care pediatric practices across the United States, text message reminders were effective in promoting increased and timelier second dose influenza vaccine receipt.

DOI

10.1542/peds.2022-056967

Alternate Title

Pediatrics

PMID

35965283

Title

Age- and sex-specific rates of gall bladder disease in children with sickle cell disease.

Year of Publication

2022

Number of Pages

e29863

Date Published

08/2022

ISSN Number

1545-5017

Abstract

BACKGROUND: Children with sickle cell disease (SCD) have an increased risk for gallstones due to chronic hyperbilirubinemia from hemolysis. Although gallstones are a known complication, there is variability in estimates of disease burden and uncertainty in the association between sex and gall bladder disease (GBD).

METHODS: This was a retrospective cohort study of children with SCD using administrative claims data (January 1, 2014-December 31, 2018). Population-averaged multivariable panel-data logistic regression models were used to evaluate the association between GBD clinical encounters (outcome) and two exposures (age and sex). Annual GBD risk was calculated using predictive margins, adjusting for disease severity, transfusion frequency, and hydroxyurea exposure.

RESULTS: A total of 13,745 individuals (of 21,487 possible) met inclusion criteria. The population was evenly split across sex (49.5% female) with predominantly Medicaid insurance (69%). A total of 946 individuals (6.9%) had GBD, 432 (3.1%) had a gallstone complication, and 487 (3.5%) underwent cholecystectomy. The annual risk of GBD rose nonlinearly from 1 to 5% between ages 1 and 19 years with no difference between males and females. Cholecystectomy occurred primarily in individuals with GBD (87%), and neither age nor sex was associated with cholecystectomy in this population. High disease severity (compared with low) more than doubled the annual risk of GBD at all ages.

CONCLUSIONS: GBD is associated with age but not sex in children with SCD. Neither age nor sex is associated with risk of cholecystectomy. High disease severity increases the rate of GBD at all ages.

DOI

10.1002/pbc.29863

Alternate Title

Pediatr Blood Cancer

PMID

35997530
Gruver, R. S., Virudachalam, S., Gerdes, M., Shults, J., Suh, A., Bishop, C. T., et al. (2014). Early Childhood Obesity Prevention: Comparing Mothers’ and Clinicians’ Priorities. Pediatric Academic Societies Meeting. Presented at the. (Original work published 05/2014 C.E.)

Title

Practice Variation in Use of Neuroimaging Among Infants With Concern for Abuse Treated in Children's Hospitals.

Year of Publication

2022

Number of Pages

e225005

Date Published

2022 Apr 01

ISSN Number

2574-3805

Abstract

<p><strong>Importance: </strong>Infants who appear neurologically well and have fractures concerning for abuse are at increased risk for clinically occult head injuries. Evidence of excess variation in neuroimaging practices when abuse is suspected may indicate opportunity for quality and safety improvement.</p>

<p><strong>Objective: </strong>To quantify neuroimaging practice variation across children's hospitals among infants with fractures evaluated for abuse, with the hypothesis that hospitals would vary substantially in neuroimaging practices. As a secondary objective, factors associated with neuroimaging use were identified, with the hypothesis that age and factors associated with potential biases (ie, payer type and race or ethnicity) would be associated with neuroimaging use.</p>

<p><strong>Design, Setting, and Participants: </strong>This cross-sectional study included infants with a femur or humerus fracture or both undergoing abuse evaluation at 44 select US children's hospitals in the Pediatric Health Information System (PHIS) from January 1, 2016, through March 30, 2020, including emergency department, observational, and inpatient encounters. Included infants were aged younger than 12 months with a femur or humerus fracture or both without overt signs or symptoms of head injury for whom a skeletal survey was performed. To focus on infants at increased risk for clinically occult head injuries, infants with billing codes suggestive of overt neurologic signs or symptoms were excluded. Multivariable logistic regression was used to investigate demographic, clinical, and temporal factors associated with use of neuroimaging. Marginal standardization was used to report adjusted percentages of infants undergoing neuroimaging by hospital and payer type. Data were analyzed from March 2021 through January 2022.</p>

<p><strong>Exposures: </strong>Covariates included age, sex, race and ethnicity, payer type, fracture type, presentation year, and hospital.</p>

<p><strong>Main Outcomes and Measures: </strong>Use of neuroimaging by CT or MRI.</p>

<p><strong>Results: </strong>Of 2585 infants with humerus or femur fracture or both undergoing evaluations for possible child abuse, there were 1408 (54.5%) male infants, 1726 infants (66.8%) who were publicly insured, and 1549 infants (59.9%) who underwent neuroimaging. The median (IQR) age was 6.1 (3.2-8.3) months. There were 748 (28.9%) Black non-Hispanic infants, 426 (16.5%) Hispanic infants, 1148 (44.4%) White non-Hispanic infants. In multivariable analyses, younger age (eg, odds ratio [OR] for ages &lt;3 months vs ages 9 to &lt;12 months, 13.2; 95% CI, 9.54-18.2; P &lt; .001), male sex (OR, 1.47; 95% CI, 1.22-1.78; P &lt; .001), payer type (OR for public vs private insurance, 1.48; 95% CI, 1.18-1.85; P = .003), fracture type (OR for femur and humerus fracture vs isolated femur fracture, 5.36; 95% CI, 2.11-13.6; P = .002), and hospital (adjusted range in use of neuroimaging, 37.4% [95% CI 21.4%-53.5%] to 83.6% [95% CI 69.6%-97.5%]; P &lt; .001) were associated with increased use of neuroimaging, but race and ethnicity were not. Publicly insured infants were more likely to undergo neuroimaging (62.0%; 95% CI, 60.0%-64.1%) than privately insured infants (55.1%; 95% CI, 51.8%-58.4%) (P = .001).</p>

<p><strong>Conclusions and Relevance: </strong>This study found that hospitals varied in neuroimaging practices among infants with concern for abuse. Apparent disparities in practice associated with insurance type suggest opportunities for quality, safety, and equity improvement.</p>

DOI

10.1001/jamanetworkopen.2022.5005

Alternate Title

JAMA Netw Open

PMID

35442455

Title

The West Philadelphia asthma care implementation study (NHLBI# U01HL138687).

Year of Publication

2021

Number of Pages

100864

Date Published

2021 Dec

ISSN Number

2451-8654

Abstract

<p>Asthma is the most common chronic condition among children, with low-income families living in urban areas experiencing significantly higher rates. Evidence based interventions for asthma are routinely implemented in either the home, school, or primary care setting. However, even when caregivers of poor children are engaged in asthma interventions in one setting, they often have to navigate challenges in another setting, such as an under-resourced home, non-supportive school, or disengaged health care provider. The West Philadelphia Asthma Care Implementation Plan aims to compare the effectiveness of a primary care-based intervention, school-based intervention, and combined primary care and school intervention to usual care for improving asthma control in school-age children to explore if the synergistic effect of Community Health Worker (CHW) support in the home, school, and health care environments will result in improved asthma control. Children ages 5-13 with uncontrolled asthma from four West Philadelphia recruitment sites will be eligible for enrollment. The families of school age children interested in participating will be randomized to receive a primary care CHW or usual care. Those identified as attending a participating school will have a CHW-led school intervention or usual care in school. If proven effective, this care coordination program will assist caregivers in assessing resources, improving self-management skills, and ultimately reducing asthma-related ED visits and hospitalizations as well as provide additional information for healthcare systems and policy makers to inform their decisions about how and where to focus additional resources and investments in childhood asthma care to improve health outcomes.</p>

DOI

10.1016/j.conctc.2021.100864

Alternate Title

Contemp Clin Trials Commun

PMID

34926863

Title

Reliability of the Telemedicine Application of the Gross Motor Function Measure-88 in Patients With Leukodystrophy.

Year of Publication

2021

Number of Pages

34-39

Date Published

2021 Sep 24

ISSN Number

1873-5150

Abstract

<p><strong>BACKGROUND: </strong>Leukodystrophies are a rare class of disorders characterized by severe neuromotor disability. There is a strong need for research regarding the functional status of people with leukodystrophy which is limited by the need for in-person assessments of mobility. The purpose of this study is to assess the reliability of the Gross Motor Function Measure-88 (GMFM-88) using telemedicine compared with standard in-person assessments in patients with leukodystrophy.</p>

<p><strong>METHODS: </strong>A total of 21 subjects with a diagnosis of leukodystrophy (age range&nbsp;= 1.79-52.82&nbsp;years) were evaluated by in-person and by telemedicine evaluations with the GMFM-88 by physical therapists. Inter-rater reliability was assessed through evaluation of the same subject by two independent raters within a three-week period (n&nbsp;=&nbsp;10 encounters), and intrarater reliability was assessed through blinded rescoring of video-recorded assessments after a one-week time interval (n&nbsp;=&nbsp;6 encounters).</p>

<p><strong>RESULTS: </strong>Remote assessments were performed by caregivers in all 21 subjects using resources found in the home with remote guidance. There was agreement between all paired in-person and remote measurements (Lin's concordance correlation ≥0.995). The Bland-Altman analysis indicated that the paired differences were within ±5%. Intrarater and inter-rater reliability demonstrated an intraclass correlation coefficient of &gt;0.90.</p>

<p><strong>CONCLUSIONS: </strong>These results support that remote application of the GMFM-88 is a feasible and reliable approach to assess individuals with leukodystrophy. Telemedicine application of outcome measures may be of particular value in rare diseases and those with severe neurologic disability that impacts the ability to travel.</p>

DOI

10.1016/j.pediatrneurol.2021.09.012

Alternate Title

Pediatr Neurol

PMID

34624609

Title

Trust in Physicians, Anxiety and Depression, and Decision-Making Preferences among Parents of Children with Serious Illness.

Year of Publication

2021

Date Published

2021 Sep 13

ISSN Number

1557-7740

Abstract

<p>To assess parental decision-making preferences when caring for a child with serious illness and to evaluate for an association between preferences and parental trust in physicians, and potential modification of this association by parental anxiety or depression. We analyzed cross-sectional data from 200 parents of 158 children in the United States who had life-threatening illnesses and whose attending physicians thought that the parents would have to make major medical decision in the next 12 to 24 months. Parents completed measures of decision-making preferences, trust in physicians, anxiety, and depression. Higher reported levels of trust were associated with lower preferences for autonomous decision making (Spearman correlation = -0.24; 95% confidence interval [CI] = -0.36 to -0.01;  &lt; 0.008). Among parents with higher levels of trust, increasing anxiety scores were associated with decreasing preference for autonomy, whereas among parents with lower levels of trust, increasing anxiety scores showed an increasing preference for autonomy (regression coefficient = -0.01; 95% CI = -0.02 to -0.001;  ≤ 0.03). Decreasing trust in physicians is associated with a higher preference for autonomous decision making. Parents who have higher levels of anxiety exhibit this association more strongly. Decision support for parents of children with serious illness should use strategies to respect parental decision-making preferences, address potential distrust, and provide mental health support to parents who are anxious or depressed.</p>

DOI

10.1089/jpm.2021.0063

Alternate Title

J Palliat Med

PMID

34516933

Title

The association between diuretic class exposures and enteral electrolyte use in infants developing grade 2 or 3 bronchopulmonary dysplasia in United States children's hospitals.

Year of Publication

2021

Date Published

2021 Jan 28

ISSN Number

1476-5543

Abstract

<p><strong>OBJECTIVE: </strong>To evaluate the association between chronic diuretic exposures and enteral electrolyte use in infants developing severe bronchopulmonary dysplasia (sBPD).</p>

<p><strong>STUDY DESIGN: </strong>Retrospective longitudinal cohort study in infants admitted to United States children's hospitals. We identified diuretic exposures and measured enteral NaCl and KCl use during pre-defined exposure risk-interval days. We used mixed-effects logistic regression to model the association between diuretic exposures and electrolyte use.</p>

<p><strong>RESULTS: </strong>We identified 442,341 subject-days in 3252 infants. All common diuretic classes and class combinations were associated with increased NaCl and KCl use. Thiazide monotherapy was associated with greater electrolyte use than loop monotherapy. The addition of potassium-sparing diuretics was associated with a limited reduction in KCl use compared to thiazide monotherapy.</p>

<p><strong>CONCLUSIONS: </strong>Chronic diuretic exposures are associated with increased NaCl and KCl use. Presumptions about the relative impact of different diuretic classes on electrolyte derangements may be inaccurate and require further study.</p>

DOI

10.1038/s41372-021-00924-y

Alternate Title

J Perinatol

PMID

33510422

Title

Pediatrician Delivered Smoking Cessation Messages for Parents: A Latent Class Approach to Behavioral Phenotyping.

Year of Publication

2020

Date Published

2020 Jul 27

ISSN Number

1876-2867

Abstract

<p><strong>OBJECTIVE: </strong>Message framing can be leveraged to motivate adult smokers to quit, but its value for parents in pediatric settings is unknown. Understanding parents' preferences for smoking cessation messages may help clinicians tailor interventions to increase quitting.</p>

<p><strong>METHODS: </strong>We conducted a discrete choice experiment in which parent smokers of pediatric patients rated the relative importance of 26 messages designed to increase smoking cessation treatment. Messages varied on who the message featured (child, parent, family), whether the message was gain- or loss-framed (emphasizing benefits of engaging or costs of failing to engage in treatment), and the specific outcome included (e.g. general health, cancer, respiratory illnesses, financial impact). Participants included 180 parent smokers at 4 pediatric primary care sites. We used latent class analysis of message ratings to identify groups of parents with similar preferences. Multinomial logistic regression described child and parent characteristics associated with group membership.</p>

<p><strong>RESULTS: </strong>We identified 3 groups of parents with similar preferences for messages: Group 1 prioritized the impact of smoking on the child (n=92, 51%), Group 2 favored gain-framed messages (n=63, 35%), and Group 3 preferred messages emphasizing the financial impact of smoking (n=25, 14%). Parents in Group 2 were more likely to have limited health literacy and have a child over age 6 and with asthma, compared to Group 1.</p>

<p><strong>CONCLUSIONS: </strong>We identified 3 groups of parent smokers with different message preferences. This work may inform testing of tailored smoking cessation messages to different parent groups, a form of behavioral phenotyping supporting motivational precision medicine.</p>

DOI

10.1016/j.acap.2020.07.018

Alternate Title

Acad Pediatr

PMID

32730914

Title

State Variation in Posthospital Home Nursing for Commercially Insured Medically Complex Children.

Year of Publication

2020

Date Published

2020 Jul 08

ISSN Number

1098-4275

Abstract

<p><strong>BACKGROUND AND OBJECTIVES: </strong>Home nursing is essential for children with medical complexity (CMC), but provision varies substantially across states. Our objectives were to quantify state-to-state variability in distribution of posthospitalization home nursing to commercially insured CMC and to rank-order states.</p>

<p><strong>METHODS: </strong>Retrospective cohort study of hospitalized commercially insured children with ≥1 complex chronic condition from birth to 18 years of age in the Truven MarketScan database. Cohort eligibility criteria were hospital discharge between January 2013 and November 2016 and at least 30 days of follow-up after discharge. Two primary outcome measures were used: receipt of any home nursing within 30 days of hospital discharge (yes or no) and number of days of posthospitalization home nursing (1-30 days). A composite metric encompassing both receipt and quantity was created by evaluating the 95th percentile of days of home nursing (0-30 days).</p>

<p><strong>RESULTS: </strong>Overall, 9.9% of the sample received home nursing. After we adjusted for patient characteristics, the probability of receiving home nursing varied across states, ranging from 3.4% to 19.2%. Among home nursing recipients, the adjusted median home nursing days across states ranged from 6.6 to 24.5 days. The adjusted 95th percentile of days of home nursing (across the entire of sample, including recipients and nonrecipients of home nursing) ranged from 6.8 to 22.6 days.</p>

<p><strong>CONCLUSIONS: </strong>We observed striking state-to-state variability in receipt of home nursing and mean number of days of posthospitalization home nursing among commercially insured CMC after adjustment for demographic and clinical differences. This suggests opportunities for state-level improvement.</p>

DOI

10.1542/peds.2019-2465

Alternate Title

Pediatrics

PMID

32641356

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