First name
Rodger
Last name
Madison

Title

Daily mean temperature and clinical kidney stone presentation in five U.S. metropolitan areas: a time-series analysis.

Year of Publication

2014

Number of Pages

1081-7

Date Published

2014 Oct

ISSN Number

1552-9924

Abstract

<p><strong>BACKGROUND: </strong>High ambient temperatures are a risk factor for nephrolithiasis, but the precise relationship between temperature and kidney stone presentation is unknown.</p>

<p><strong>OBJECTIVES: </strong>Our objective was to estimate associations between mean daily temperature and kidney stone presentation according to lag time and temperatures.</p>

<p><strong>METHODS: </strong>Using a time-series design and distributed lag nonlinear models, we estimated the relative risk (RR) of kidney stone presentation associated with mean daily temperatures, including cumulative RR for a 20-day period, and RR for individual daily lags through 20 days. Our analysis used data from the MarketScan Commercial Claims database for 60,433 patients who sought medical evaluation or treatment of kidney stones from 2005-2011 in the U.S. cities of Atlanta, Georgia; Chicago, Illinois; Dallas, Texas; Los Angeles, California; and Philadelphia, Pennsylvania.</p>

<p><strong>RESULTS: </strong>Associations between mean daily temperature and kidney stone presentation were not monotonic, and there was variation in the exposure-response curve shapes and the strength of associations at different temperatures. However, in most cases RRs increased for temperatures above the reference value of 10°C. The cumulative RR for a daily mean temperature of 30°C versus 10°C was 1.38 in Atlanta (95% CI: 1.07, 1.79), 1.37 in Chicago (95% CI: 1.07, 1.76), 1.36 in Dallas (95% CI: 1.10, 1.69), 1.11 in Los Angeles (95% CI: 0.73, 1.68), and 1.47 in Philadelphia (95% CI: 1.00, 2.17). Kidney stone presentations also were positively associated with temperatures &lt; 2°C in Atlanta, and &lt; 10°C in Chicago and Philadelphia. In four cities, the strongest association between kidney stone presentation and a daily mean temperature of 30°C versus 10°C was estimated for lags of ≤ 3 days.</p>

<p><strong>CONCLUSIONS: </strong>In general, kidney stone presentations increased with higher daily mean temperatures, with the strongest associations estimated for lags of only a few days. These findings further support an adverse effect of high temperatures on nephrolithiasis.</p>

DOI

10.1289/ehp.1307703

Alternate Title

Environ. Health Perspect.

PMID

25009122

Title

Use of and regional variation in initial CT imaging for kidney stones.

Year of Publication

2014

Number of Pages

909-15

Date Published

2014 Nov

ISSN Number

1098-4275

Abstract

<p><strong>OBJECTIVE: </strong>We sought to determine the prevalence of initial computed tomography (CT) utilization and to identify regions in the United States where CT is highly used as the first imaging study for children with nephrolithiasis.</p>

<p><strong>METHODS: </strong>We performed a cross-sectional study in 9228 commercially insured children aged 1 to 17 years with nephrolithiasis who underwent diagnostic imaging in the United States between 2003 and 2011. Data were obtained from MarketScan, a commercial insurance claims database of 17,827,229 children in all 50 states. We determined the prevalence of initial CT use, defined as CT alone or CT performed before ultrasound in the emergency department, inpatient unit, or outpatient clinic, and identified regions of high CT utilization by using logistic regression.</p>

<p><strong>RESULTS: </strong>Sixty-three percent of children underwent initial CT study and 24% had ultrasound performed first. By state, the proportion of children who underwent initial CT ranged from 41% to 79%. Regional variations persisted after adjusting for age, gender, year of presentation, and insurance type. Relative to children living in West South Central states, the highest odds of initial CT utilization were observed for children living in the East South Central US Census division (odds ratio: 1.27; 95% confidence interval: 1.06-1.54). The lowest odds of initial CT were observed for children in the New England states (odds ratio: 0.48; 95% confidence interval: 0.38-0.62).</p>

<p><strong>CONCLUSIONS: </strong>Use of CT as the initial imaging study for children with nephrolithiasis is highly prevalent and shows extensive regional variability in the United States. Current imaging practices deviate substantially from recently published guidelines that recommend ultrasound as the initial imaging study.</p>

DOI

10.1542/peds.2014-1694

Alternate Title

Pediatrics

PMID

25349323

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