First name
Xiaowei
Last name
Zhu

Title

Pilot Study for comparative assessment of Dual-energy CT and SPECT-CT V/Q scanning for lung perfusion evaluation in infants.

Year of Publication

2021

Date Published

2021 Dec 16

ISSN Number

1099-0496

Abstract

<p><strong>OBJECTIVE: </strong>To evaluate clinical applications of Dual-Energy CT (DECT) in pediatric-specific lung diseases and compare ventilation and perfusion findings with those from single-photon emission CT (SPECT-CT) V/Q.</p>

<p><strong>METHODS: </strong>All patients at our institution who underwent exams using both techniques within a 3-month period were included in this study. Two readers independently described findings for DECT, and two other readers independently analyzed the SPECT-CT V/Q scan data. All findings were compared between readers and disagreements were reassessed and resolved by consensus. Inter- modality agreements are described throughout this paper.</p>

<p><strong>RESULTS: </strong>Eight patients were included for evaluation. The median age for DECT scanning was 3.5 months (IQR=2). Five of these patients were scanned for both DECT and SPECT-CT V/Q studies the same day, and three had a time gap of 7, 65, and 94 days between studies. The most common indications were chronic lung disease (5/8; 63%) and pulmonary hypertension (6/8; 75%). DECT and SPECT-CT V/Q identified perfusion abnormalities in concordant lobes in most patients (7/8; 88%). In one case, atelectasis limited DECT perfusion assessment. Three patients ultimately underwent lobectomy with corresponding perfusion abnormalities identified by all reviewers on both DECT and SPECT-CT V/Q in all resected lobes.</p>

<p><strong>CONCLUSION: </strong>DECT is a feasible technique that could be considered as an alternative for SPECT-CT V/Q for lung perfusion evaluation in infants. This article is protected by copyright. All rights reserved.</p>

DOI

10.1002/ppul.25788

Alternate Title

Pediatr Pulmonol

PMID

34914194

Title

Validation of computed tomography angiography as a complementary test in the assessment of renal artery stenosis: a comparison with digital subtraction angiography.

Year of Publication

2021

Date Published

2021 Aug 10

ISSN Number

1432-1998

Abstract

<p><strong>BACKGROUND: </strong>Renal artery stenosis is an important cause of hypertension in children, accounting for 5-10% of cases. When suspected, noninvasive imaging options include ultrasound (US), computed tomography (CT) angiography and magnetic resonance (MR) angiography. However, digital subtraction angiography (DSA) remains the gold standard.</p>

<p><strong>OBJECTIVE: </strong>To investigate the accuracy and inter-reader reliability of CT angiography in children with suspected renal artery stenosis.</p>

<p><strong>MATERIALS AND METHODS: </strong>This is a retrospective study of patients suspected of having renal artery stenosis evaluated by both CT angiography and DSA between 2008 and 2019 at a tertiary pediatric hospital. Only children who underwent CT angiography within 6&nbsp;months before DSA were included. CT angiography studies were individually reviewed by two pediatric radiologists, blinded to clinical data, other studies and each other's evaluation, to determine the presence of stenosis at the main renal artery and 2nd- and 3rd-order branches. The sensitivity, specificity and accuracy were calculated using DSA as the reference. The effective radiation dose for CT angiography and DSA was also calculated. Kappa statistics were used to assess inter-reader agreement.</p>

<p><strong>RESULTS: </strong>Seventy-four renal units were evaluated (18 girls, 19 boys). The patients' median age was 8&nbsp;years (range: 1-21&nbsp;years). Overall, CT angiography was effective in detecting renal artery stenosis with a sensitivity of 85.7%, specificity of 91.5% and accuracy of 88.9%. There was moderate inter-reader agreement at the main renal artery level (k=0.73) and almost perfect inter-reader agreement at the 2nd/3rd order (k=0.98). However, the sensitivity at the 2nd- and 3rd-order level was lower (14.3%). CT angiography provided excellent negative predictive value for evaluating renal artery stenosis at the main renal artery level (90.1%) and at the 2nd- or 3rd-order branches (82.7%). The median effective dose of CT angiography studies was 2.2&nbsp;mSv (range: 0.6-6.3) while the effective dose of DSA was 13.7&nbsp;mSv.</p>

<p><strong>CONCLUSION: </strong>CT angiography has high sensitivity and specificity at the main renal artery level with a lower radiation dose than previously assumed. Therefore, it can be used as a diagnostic tool in patients with low to medium risk of renal artery stenosis, and as a screening and treatment planning tool in patients at high risk.</p>

DOI

10.1007/s00247-021-05145-1

Alternate Title

Pediatr Radiol

PMID

34374838

Title

Normal age-related quantitative CT values in the pediatric lung: from the first breath to adulthood.

Year of Publication

2021

Number of Pages

111-118

Date Published

2021 Jan 04

ISSN Number

1873-4499

Abstract

<p><strong>OBJECTIVE: </strong>To characterize the normal progression of quantitative CT parameters in normal children from birth to adulthood.</p>

<p><strong>MATERIALS AND METHODS: </strong>Patients aged 0-18&nbsp;years with non-contrast-enhanced chest CT and evidence of normal lung parenchyma were included. Patients with respiratory symptoms, incomplete anthropometric measurements, or sub-optimal imaging technique were excluded. Segmentation was performed using an open-source software with an automated threshold segmentation. The following parameters were obtained: mean lung density, kurtosis, skewness, lung volume, and mass. Linear and exponential regression models were calculated with age and height as independent variables. A p-value of &lt;0.05 was considered significant.</p>

<p><strong>RESULTS: </strong>220 patients (111 females, 109 males) were included. Mean age was 9.6&nbsp;±&nbsp;5.9&nbsp;years and mean height was 133.9&nbsp;±&nbsp;35.1&nbsp;cm. Simple linear regression showed a significant relationship between mean lung density with age (R 2&nbsp;=&nbsp;0.70) and height (R 2&nbsp;=&nbsp;0.73). Kurtosis displayed a significant exponential correlation with age (R 2&nbsp;=&nbsp;0.70) and height (R 2&nbsp;=&nbsp;0.71). Skewness showed a significant exponential correlation with age (R 2&nbsp;=&nbsp;0.71) and height (R 2&nbsp;=&nbsp;0.73). Lung mass showed a correlation with age (R 2&nbsp;=&nbsp;0.93) and height (R 2&nbsp;=&nbsp;0.92). Exponential regression showed a significant relationship between lung volume with age (R 2&nbsp;=&nbsp;0.88) and height (R 2&nbsp;=&nbsp;0.93).</p>

<p><strong>CONCLUSION: </strong>Quantitative CT parameters of the lung parenchyma demonstrate changes from birth to adulthood. As children grow, the mean lung density decreases, and the lung parenchyma becomes more homogenous.</p>

DOI

10.1016/j.clinimag.2020.12.021

Alternate Title

Clin Imaging

PMID

33524938

Title

Quantitative CT analysis for bronchiolitis obliterans in perinatally HIV-infected adolescents-comparison with controls and lung function data.

Year of Publication

2020

Date Published

2020 Mar 14

ISSN Number

1432-1084

Abstract

<p><strong>OBJECTIVE: </strong>To compare quantitative chest CT parameters in perinatally HIV-infected adolescents with and without bronchiolitis obliterans compared with HIV-uninfected controls and their association with lung function measurements.</p>

<p><strong>MATERIALS AND METHODS: </strong>Seventy-eight (41 girls) HIV-infected adolescents with a mean age of 13.8 ± 1.65&nbsp;years and abnormal pulmonary function tests in the prospective Cape Town Adolescent Antiretroviral Cohort underwent contrast-enhanced chest CT on inspiration and expiration. Sixteen age-, sex-, and height-matched non-infected controls were identified retrospectively. Fifty-one HIV-infected adolescents (28 girls) displayed mosaic attenuation on expiration suggesting bronchiolitis obliterans. Pulmonary function tests were collected. The following parameters were obtained: low- and high-attenuation areas, mean lung density, kurtosis, skewness, ventilation heterogeneity, lung mass, and volume.</p>

<p><strong>RESULTS: </strong>HIV-infected adolescents showed a significantly higher mean lung density, ventilation heterogeneity, mass, and high- and low-attenuation areas compared with non-infected individuals. Kurtosis and skewness were significantly lower as well. HIV-infected adolescents with bronchiolitis obliterans had a significantly lower kurtosis and skewness compared with those without bronchiolitis obliterans. Lung mass and volume showed the strongest correlations with forced expiratory volume in 1&nbsp;s (FEV), forced vital capacity (FVC), and alveolar volume. Low-attenuation areas below -&nbsp;950&nbsp;HU and ventilation heterogeneity showed the strongest correlation with FEV/FVC (range, - 0.51 to - 0.34) and forced expiratory flow between 25 and 75% of FVC (range, - 0.50 to - 0.35).</p>

<p><strong>CONCLUSION: </strong>Quantitative chest CT on inspiration is a feasible technique to differentiate perinatally HIV-infected adolescents with and without bronchiolitis obliterans. Quantitative CT parameters correlate with spirometric measurements of small-airway disease.</p>

<p><strong>KEY POINTS: </strong>• Perinatally HIV-infected adolescents showed a more heterogeneous attenuation of the lung parenchyma with a higher percentage of low- and high-attenuation areas compared with non-infected patients. • Kurtosis and skewness are able to differentiate between HIV-infected adolescents with and without bronchiolitis obliterans using an inspiratory chest CT. • Quantitative CT parameters of the chest correlate significantly with pulmonary function test. Low-attenuation areas and ventilation heterogeneity are particularly associated with spirometric parameters related to airway obstruction.</p>

DOI

10.1007/s00330-020-06789-7

Alternate Title

Eur Radiol

PMID

32172382

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